Flashcards in Pulmonary H&P Deck (35)
What are the three most common pulmonary symptoms?
Shortness of breath (SOB)
What are the different kinds of productive cough and what does each indicate?
Green does not mean bacterial
Productive can be infectious or inflammatory
Dry tends to indicate something other than inf
Large amounts tend to indicate inflammatory or inf
What can a nighttime cough be indicative of?
Reactive airway disease
What is the ddx of a cough with an abnormal CXR?
Interstitial lung disease
What is the Ddx of a cough with a normal CXR?
Upper respiratory inf - bronchitis
Allergic rhinitis (postnatal drip)
Vocal cord polyps
What is the difference between hemoptysis and hematemesis?
Hemoptysis - blood is from respiratory tract - bright red frothy sputum, hemosiderin laden macrophages, alkaline ph
Hematemesis - blood is from GI tract - associated with nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, dark red blood, acid ph
What is massive hemoptysis?
100-600 ml of blood over 24 hrs
Can cause aspiration and asphyxiation
Usually indicates arterial source
What is the Ddx of hemoptysis?
What is the most specific pulmonary symptom for CHF?
What is the Ddx of SOB?
Interstitial lung disease
Mitral or aortic stenosis
What accessory muscles are used in certain respiratory abnormalities?
First scalenes but can't see them
SCM - indicates FEV1 has decreased to ~30% normal
Intercostal muscles and spaces
Abdominal wall muscles
What abnormalities are seen when the intercostal muscles kick in during respiration?
Decreased inward retraction indicates increased expansion of lungs - consolidation, tension pneumothorax, pleural effusion
Exaggerated outward bulging - increased intrapleural pressure or lungs unable to empty - emphysema, acute asthma exacerbation, tension pneumothorax, flail chest
Constant bulging of spaces - massive pleural effusion
What is the respiratory paradox?
Diaphragm is weak or overloaded
Moves up during inspiration and abdominal wall moves in
Sign of respiratory failure and usually indicates patient needs mechanical ventilation
What is the significance of tracheal deviation?
Toward hemithorax with lower pressure - atelectasis, consolidation with closed bronchus
Away from hemithorax with higher pressure - pleural effusion, pneumothorax
What is the significance of splinting?
Asymmetric expansion of chest
Causes include unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, pneumothorax, bronchial obstruction, massive pleural effusion
What is the significance of clubbing?
Rounding of distal phalanx of each finger
Seen in chronic hypoxia, congenital heart disease, endocarditis, chronic renal insufficiency, or congenital
Shunts allow megakaryocytes fragments to bypass lungs and deposit in capillaries
What are causes of generalized cyanosis? Peripheral?
Deoxyhemoglobinemia - only if patients hemoglobin >5
Peripheral from tissue hypoperfusion - hemoglobin normal
How is the I/E ratio used in the pulm exam?
Normal is 1:2
Increased (1:3 or higher) means patient trying to get air out - asthma or COPD
When is decreased fremitus seen?
Consolidation with closed bronchus
When is increased fremitus seen?
Fluid in alveoli -
Consolidation with open bronchus
When is dullness to percussion seen?
Consolidation of lung - open or closed bronchus
When is hyper resonance to percussion seen?
Pneumothorax - unilateral
COPD or asthma - bilateral
What is diaphragmatic excursion?
Elevation of left hemidiaphragm always abnormal
Could be due to diaphragmatic paralysis, LUQ mass, pleural effusion, occasionally left lower lobe lesion
What does it mean if breath sounds are decreased in one area of the chest (focal)?
Disease either in the bronchi or alveoli of that region
What does generalized decrease in breath sounds indicate?
Restrictive lung disease
Expanded lungs with obstruction (COPD)
Obstructive lung disease
What is bronchophony?
Tracheal breath sounds in lung from consolidation with open bronchus
What are the different normal breath sounds?
Vesicular - normal or alveolar, present longer during inspiration that expiration
Bronchial - louder and higher frequency, heard best at manubrium, hard to hear normally, longer in expiration that inspiration
Tracheal - equal in inspiration and expiration, louder
What are the possible adventitious breath sounds?
What is stridor?
Hissing noise in inspiration that indicates upper airway obstruction
Inspiratory = hot potato voice - obstruction near trachea, larynx, of epiglottis, emergency
Expiratory - obstruction in lower airways