Disorders of Calcium Flashcards Preview

Block 5 - Pulm and Skeletal > Disorders of Calcium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disorders of Calcium Deck (15)
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Fatigue, confusion, depression, lethargy, coma, polyurethane, nocturia, constipation, pancreatitis, dyspepsia, weakness

General symptoms of hypercalcemia

1

Triad of Kidney stones, bone disease, peptic ulcer or pancreatitis
High blood calcium with high PTH
Blood phosphorous usually low
24 h urine calcium high or high normal
Bone mineral density low

Primary hyperparathyroidism

2

Hypercalcemia, low blood phosphate and suppressed PTH

Hypercalcemia of malignancy due to PTHrP

3

High blood calcium, low PTH, high normal or elevated phosphate
Low vitamin d

Hypercalcemia of malignancy with cytokines

4

High calcium, low PTH, high blood phosphate

Vitamin d toxicity

5

PTH high normal, low urinary calcium

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
Don't remove glands - it will just recur

6

Low blood calcium, high phosphate, low PTH

Hypoparathyroidism

7

Low calcium, high phosphorous, high PTH

Psuedohypoparathyroidism

8

Low calcium and low phosphorous in blood

Lack of vitamin d
Decreased 25 OHD
Decreased 1,25(OH)2-D (kidney disease, 1alpha hydroxylase deficiency)

9

Low calcium and phosphorous, high 1,25(OH)2D

Resistance - inactivating mutation of vitamin d receptor causing hypocalcemia

10

Neuromuscular excitability - chvosteks and trousseaus
Muscle cramps the tetany
Paresthesia
Laryngo and bronchospasm
Seizure
Arrhythmia

Signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia

11

What are the causes of osteomalacia?

Vitamin d deficiency or resistance
Hypophosphatemia - FGF 23 increase renal loss and suppresses vitamin d
Drug induced - anticonvulsants enhance catabolism of vitamin d, phosphate binders (aluminum)

12

Diffuse bone pain, muscle tenderness and weakness, waddling gait, fractures and psuedofractures in usual and unusual locations (ribs, sternum, scapula, pelvis, femoral shafts, metatarsals - not in osteoperosis)

Osteomalacia

13

Decreased growth, widening of epiphysis, rachitic rosary, deformation of bones, tooth enamel defects

Rickets

14

What lab values are seen in osteomalacia?

Elevated alk phos and/or PTH
Low blood calcium and/or phosphate