Pulmonary lung volumes & Pneumothorax Flashcards

1
Q

Define Residual Volume

A

volume of air remaining in lungs after max expiratory effort

2
Q

Define Functional Residual Capacity

A

amount of air remaining in lungs after the end of normal quiet respiration

3
Q

Equation of FRC?

A

ERV + RV

4
Q

T or F. smaller the FRC, less amount of gas exchange in alveoli

A

TRUE

5
Q

What 2 simple things are needed for oxygen to get into the alveoli (not chemically)?

A

Blood Flow (Perfusion) and Ventilation

6
Q

Define Expiratory Reserve Volume

A

maximal amount of gas that can be exhaled from the resting end-expiratory level

7
Q

Define Inspiratory Reserve Volume

A

maximal amount of gas that can be inhaled from the end-inspiratory position

8
Q

Define Vital Capacity

A

the greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath

9
Q

How of the time do we spend exhaling?

A

2/3 of the time

10
Q

Why would someone who took 3 VC breaths desaturate faster than someone who took TV breaths for 3 minutes?

A

The total oxygen in the entire body would be less in someone that took 3 VC breaths than someone who was preoxygenated longer

11
Q

Normal Lung Volumes?

A
```Tidal Volume - 500cc
IRV - 3000cc
ERV - 1100cc
RV - 1200cc
FRC - 2300cc
Total Lung Capacity - 5800cc```
12
Q

What’s part of static lung volume?

A

Involves Residual Volume and Total Lung Capacity

13
Q

Define Forced Vital Capacity

A

Taking a deep breath in and forcing the air all the way out

14
Q

What does FVC depend on?

A

It depends on how much motor strength the patient has to be able to push the air out

15
Q

Define Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1)

A

its how much air we can expel in the first second

16
Q

What is a normal percentage for FEV1?

A

70-80%

17
Q

T or F. FEV is dependent on how much air we can inspire.

A

FALSE. it does NOT depend on how much we can inspire

18
Q

Define Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV)

A

when you tell a patient to breathe as deep and as fast as they can

19
Q

What does MVV measure?

A

It measures amount of motor activity and how well muscles work

20
Q

Define Closing Capacity

A

volume in the lungs where alveoli and airways start to collapse

21
Q

Where would you see CC?

A

Below FRC

22
Q

What increases chances of CC?

A

age, smoking history, intrinsic lung disease and body position

23
Q

What impacts FRC?

A

Body Habitus, Age, Sex, Posture, Lung Disease, Diaphragmatic Tone

24
Q

Which has least resistance? Laminar or Turbulent

A

LAMINAR

25
Q

When does laminar flow become turbulent flow

A

when the pressure difference increases

26
Q

Which occurs in FASTER velocities? Laminar or Turbulent

A

TURBULENT

27
Q

Where would you see Laminar Flow?

A

in large airways

28
Q

Why even mention laminar and turbulent flow?

A

There is airway resistance from friction in the anatomy of the respiratory tract

29
Q

What is Poiseuille’s Law

A

measurement of resistance

30
Q

Resistance to flow is inversely proportional to what and by how much

A

inversely proportional to radius to the power of 4 or by 16 fold

31
Q

what are the 3 categories of a pneumothorax?

A

Spontaneous, Traumatic, Tension

32
Q

What are the subcategories of Spontaneous Pneumothorax and what the difference between them?

A
1. Primary - occurs in absence of known lung disease

2. Secondary - occurs in a variety of lung disease

33
Q

Which lung disease is most commonly known for causing a Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax?

A

COPD

34
Q

What is a Spontaneous Pneumothorax?

A

When there is no injury to the lung or chest wall directly, but there a rupture in the alveoli

35
Q

What is a Traumatic Pneumothorax?

A

caused from any sort of penetration trauma (gun, knife, blunt force)

36
Q

what are signs and symptoms to diagnose a pneumothorax?

A
```Acute onset dyspnea
Chest Pain
Hypotension
Tachycardia