You check the polarity of the PV output before applying ______ to ______.
PV power to an inverter, a charge controller, batteries, or a load
The battery bank for a battery backup utility-interactive PV system is located in a harsh environment with temperature and humidity extremes. What are the most likely effects on the battery's state of charge?
Undercharged in cold weather and overcharged in hot weather
A 1/4" x 3 1/2" lag screw that has a 3" thread is used to attach an L- bracket to an asphalt-shingle roof. If the combined thickness of the L- bracket, shingles, and roof membrane is 3/4", and if the screw penetrates directly into a roof truss made of Southern Yellow Pine into a properly sized pilot hole, then what is the withdrawal resistance?
In a PV system, which equipment is colored in green?
The grounding conductors
If your magnetic compass is in San Francisco, CA and is showing that your array is aiming to the heading of 189 degrees, what is the azimuth of solar (true) south?
In DC PV systems, what is the function of bare copper?
It's usually not carrying substantial current
Of the following site assessment tools, which are most often needed to determine optimal array placement?
- sun path analyzer
Compass, inclinometer, and sun path analyzer
A PV array for a utility-interactive system is to be ground-mounted on a hill 1,000 feet from the point of utility connection. It uses a 240 V inverter, and a single string of 1W modules operates between 300 and 550 volts DC. There is a small building halfway between the array location and the utility point of connection. To minimize wire size, increase performance, and ensure consistent operation, where should the inverter be installed?
At the utility point of connection
What does green mean in an AC system?
Under what conditions does thin-film PV respond less than polycrystalline PV?
Heat and shading
What is the required minimum working space width in front of a 48 V lead acid battery bank?
30" or the width of the battery bank, whichever is greater
Areas of low wind, latitude greater than 30 degrees, and minimal daytime summer cloud cover are optimal conditions for what?
Two-axis tracking mount
A PV array for a utility-interactive system is to be ground-mounted on a hill 1,000 ft from the point of utility connection. The single string of 1W modules operates between 300 and 550 volts DC. The inverter is a 240 V inverter. There is a small building halfway between the array location and the utility point of connection. The utility point connection will do what for the inverter?
Minimize wire size, increase performance, and ensure consistent operation.
What is the cost advantage of thin-film?
Can be cheaper per watt to produce
PV systems located far south should do what to optimize performance?
Increase the tilt angle
Four PV modules, each with an area of 10 ft2, are to be mounted with a stand-off mount secured to a metal seam roof with L-brackets. If the modules can withstand a load of 75 lbs/ft2, and it is desired to support the full load with one lag screw in each bracket, and each screw has a withdrawal resistance of 300 lb/in2 including a safety factor of 4, the minimum screw thread length to penetrate would be...
A proposed PV installation site has an unobstructed south-facing roof area of 60 m2. If thin-film modules with six watts-per-square-foot power output at STC are to be installed on 50% of the roof, then the maximum available PV array output power (based on the sum of module ratings) at STC will be...
As it relates to PV system mechanical design, the closer you are to the north, what action will optimize performance?
Decrease your tilt angle
A small conductor between the array and the inverter is a characteristic of a 500 V DC PV array and gives it an advantage over what kind of array?
A 48 V DC array of the same wattage
What is distributed generation?
Smaller systems produce electricity close to consumption needs
What is the most important consideration of mounting PV arrays on residential rooftops with regard to energy production?
30 inches, or the width of the battery bank, is the required minimum for what?
Working space width in front of a 48 V lead acid battery bank
Shading is the most important consideration for what?
For mounting PV arrays on residential rooftops with regard to energy production
It is important to have what in coastal areas where the air contains salt spray?
When many smaller systems produce electricity that meets consumption needs, what is it called?
In DC PV systems, what is usually NOT carrying substantial generation?
Arrays are common components in what?
All PV systems
Stainless-steel hardware is most important in which areas?
Coastal areas where the air contains salt spray
A compass, inclinometer, and sun path analyzer are site assessment tools used for what?
Determining the optimal array placement
Before applying PV power to either an inverter, a charge controller, batteries, or a load, one should first do what?
Check the polarity of the PV output
Heat and shading have what effect on thin-film PV?
Decreased responsiveness, compared to polycrystalline PV
What kind of PV system promises to be cheaper per watt to produce?