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Flashcards in Q+A Content Deck (38):
1

When did the Asch test take place?

1951

2

What was Asch's study testing?

Conformity

3

How many participants were in Asch study?

123 American males

4

How many confederates with one participant?

6-8

5

How was Asch line task set out?

1 standard line and 3 comparison lines and participant was asked which comparison line matched the standard

6

What did Asch find?

Participant gave wrong answer 36% of the time. Overall 75% of the participants conformed at least once. After being interviewed many said they conformed to avoid rejection

7

How did group size affect conformity?

With 3 confederates, conformity was at 31.8% but more made little difference

8

How did unanimity affect conformity?

A confederate was used who went against the others. Dissenting confederate reduced conformity by a quarter

9

How did task difficulty affect conformity?

Conformity increased when the lines became of a similar length making the task harder

10

What was the name of Zimbardos study?

Stanford Prison Experiment

11

Where was the SPE set up?

Took place in the basement of the psychology department at Stanford University

12

When was the STP?

1973

13

How did they get participants in the SPE?

Places were advertised and people volunteered

14

How were participants assigned roles in the SPE?

Participants were randomly assigned roles of guards or prisoners

15

How was the realism heightened in the SPE?

Prisoners were arrested at home, blindfolded and strip-searched, issued a number and uniform

16

What were the main findings of the SPE?

Study stopped after 6 days instead of 14 as guards behaviour became a threat to the prisoners.
Within 2 days the prisoners rebelled against the guards but guards harassed the prisoners and shut them down.
After, prisoners became depressed and some had to leave as they show psychological impacts

17

What were the conclusions of the SPE?

Everyone conformed to their social roles and the simulation revealed the power of the situation on people behaviour

18

Who and when did an experiment into obedience?

Milgram, 1963

19

Who were Milgram participants?

40 males aged between 20-50

20

How did Milgram recruit his participants?

Through adverts and flyers

21

Who was present at Milgrams experiment?

A confederate who was Mr Wallace acted as the 'learner'
True participant was the 'teacher'
Confederate as an 'experiementer'

22

How did Milgrams study happen?

The learner was strapped into a chair
Teacher gave increasing electric shock every time learner got an answer wrong
Shock level went from 15V to top 450V

23

What prods were given forth experimenter to the participant?

Prod 1- Please continue
Prod 2- The experiment requires that you continue
Prod 3- It is absolutely essential that you continue
Prod 4- You have no other choice, you must go on

24

What did Milgram find?

None of the participants topped below 300V
12.5% stopped at 300V
65% continued to 450V
Participants were observed to be sweating and showing extreme signs of tension

25

Name the 3 situational variables

Proximity
Location
Uniform

26

How did proximity affect obedience?

When learner and teacher were in the same room obedience dropped from 65% to 40%
when the experimenter gave instructions over the phone obedience dropped to 20.5%

27

How did location affect obedience?

When study took place in a run down building obedience fell to 47.5%

28

How did uniform affect obedience?

Experimenter would wear normal clothes rather than a lab coat who obedience dropped to 20%

29

What is the autonomous state?

People in this state are free to behave according to their own principles and so feel a sense of responsibility towards their actions

30

What is the agentic shift?

This is a shift from the autonomous state to the agentic state
Milgram said this occurs when a person perceives another person ha greater power as they are a figure of authority

31

What are binding factors in relation to obedience?

These are aspects of the situation that allow the person to ignore the damaging effect of their behaviour and se lessening the moral strain

32

What is a consequence of legitimacy of authority?

People are granted the power to punish others

33

Who conducted a study into the authoritarian personality and when?

Adorno, 1950

34

Who was in Adornos study?

2000 middle class white Americans

35

What was Adorno looking into?

Participants unconscious attitudes to other racial groups using an F scale

36

What did Adorno find?

People with authoritarian leanings, those that scored high on the scale, identified with the 'strong'
These people are very conscious of theirs and others social status

37

What are some of the authoritarian characteristics?

They have asocial tendency to obey people of authority
Have highly conventional attitudes to sex, race, gender etc.

38

Where did the authoritarian personality originate form?

A childhood of harsh parenting receiving strict discipline