Q3 Pectoral, Scapular Regions and Shoulder joint Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Q3 Pectoral, Scapular Regions and Shoulder joint Deck (62)
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1
Q
  • anterior aspect of the shoulder
  • also part of the anterior thoracic wall
  • contains pectoral muscles and connect and function as part of the upper limb
A

pectoral region

2
Q

it is a specialized accessory gland of the skin that are capable of secreting milk

A

breast

3
Q

small elevated part of the breast

A

nipple

4
Q

colored area of skin around the nipple

A

areola

5
Q

how many lobes radiate around the nipples?

A

15-20 lobes

6
Q

lobes contain what?

A

lobules

7
Q

a tree branched system that connects the lobules of mammary gland to the tip of the nipple

A

lactiferous ducts

8
Q

structures that carry milk towards the nipple

A

lactiferous ducts

9
Q

dilated part of the duct; elevated part commonly at the end of lactiferous ducts (also called ampulla)

A

lactiferous sinus

10
Q

fibrous septa that separates lobes of the gland from each other; extends from skin to deep fascia

A

suspensory ligament

11
Q

tiny tubercles on the areola

A

areolar glands (of montgomery)

12
Q

what are the uses of the areolar gland?

A

maintains moisture on the nipples and prevents cracks on happening especially when breastfeeding

13
Q

behind of breast tissue filled by loose connective tissue

A

retromammary space

14
Q

blood supply of the breast

A
  1. internal thoracic artery
  2. intercostal artery
  3. lateral thoracic
  4. thoracoacromial branches of axillary artery
15
Q

what is the lymphatic drainage of the lateral quadrant of the breast?

A

anterior axillary or pectoral group of nodes

16
Q

what is the lymphatic drainage of the medial quadrant of the breast?

A

internal thoracic group of nodes

17
Q

to what location does the breast extend to at puberty?

A

2nd to 6th ribs, from lateral margin of sternum to midaxillary line

18
Q

where is the nipple located?

A

4th intercostal space midclavicle

19
Q

what happens to breasts in early pregnancy?

A
  • secretory alveoli develop at ends of smaller duct
  • vascularity increases
  • nipple enlarges, areola darkens, areolar glands become active
20
Q

what happens to breasts in late pregnancy?

A
  • growth slows at 2nd half of pregnancy but breast continues to enlarge due to distention of secretory alveoli with fluid secretion
21
Q

what do you call the first milk released by the breast

A

colostrum

22
Q

why is the colostrum important?

A

it contains the antibodies from the mother passed to the baby

23
Q

what happens to breasts in post weaning (baby doesn’t breastfeed anymore)?

A
  • breast return to inactive state
  • secretory alveoli shrink and most disappear
  • nipple shrinks
    pigmentation of areola fades
24
Q

women that have nipples w no fat, hair, or sweat glands ; nipples at the 4th intercostal space

A

nulliparous women

25
Q

women that have enlarged nipples and are pendulous

A

multiparous women

26
Q

what happens to breast postmenopause?

A
  • breast atrophies
  • secretory alveoli disappears leaving behind the duct
  • adipose tissue may increase or decrease
  • breasts tend to shrink in size but becomes pendulous
  • due to absence of estrogen and progesterone
27
Q

a pyramid shape between upper part of arm and side of chest

A

axillary region

28
Q

what is the upper end of the axillary region and is directed to root of neck called

A

apex

29
Q

what is the lower end of the axillary region called

A

base

30
Q

AXILLARY REGION: boundaries of the apex

A
  • anterior: clavicle
  • posterior: upper border of scapula
  • medially: outer border of first rib
31
Q

AXILLARY REGION: boundaries of the base

A
  • Anterior axillary fold (lower border of pectoralis major muscle)
  • Posterior axillary fold (tendon of latissimus dorsi and teres major muscle)
  • Medially by the chest wall
32
Q

AXILLARY REGION: what forms the ANTERIOR WALL

A
  • pectoralis major
  • pectoralis minor
  • subclavius
33
Q

AXILLARY REGION: what forms the POSTERIOR WALL

A
  • subscapularis
  • latissimus dorsi
  • teres major
34
Q

AXILLARY REGION: what forms the LATERAL WALL

A
  • coracobrachialis
  • biceps in bicipital groove of humerus
35
Q

AXILLARY REGION: what forms the MEDIAL WALL

A
  • upper four or five ribs
  • intercostal spaces covered by serratus anterior
36
Q

Contents of the axillary region

A
  1. axillary vein
  2. axillary artery - main blood supply to the upper limb; from subclavian artery
  3. brachial plexus
  4. lymph nodes of axilla
37
Q

name changes from “subclavian artery” to “axillary artery” at what landmark?

A

1st rib

38
Q

where does the “axillary artery” end and becomes the “ brachial artery”?

A

lower border of the teres major

39
Q

what encloses the brachial plexus (cords and branches)?

A

axillary sheath

40
Q

what muscle divides the axillary artery to 3 parts?

A

pectoralis minor

41
Q

What is the location and the First division of the Axillary artery

A

first rib to upper border of the pectoralis minor;

(1) Highest Thoracic Artery

42
Q

What is the location and the Second division of the Axillary artery

A

under pectoralis minor;

(2) Thoracoacromial acromial
(3) Lateral Thoracic Artery

43
Q

What is the location and the Third division of the Axillary artery

A

from lower border of pectoralis minor to lower border of teres major;

(4) Subscapular artery
(5) Anterior Humeral Circumflex Artery
(6) Posterior Humeral Circumflex Artery
(which passes thru the quadrangular space)

44
Q

strong sheet of connective tissue attached above the clavicle

A

clavipectoral fascia

45
Q

SCAPULAR REGION: what forms the quadrangular space?

A
  • teres minor
  • teres major
  • subscapularis
  • surgical neck
  • long head of triceps
46
Q

SCAPULAR REGION: what forms the triangular space?

A
  • teres minor
  • teres major
  • triceps long head
47
Q

SCAPULAR REGION: what forms the triangular interval?

A
  • triceps medial
  • triceps long head
  • teres major
48
Q

SCAPULAR REGION: structures that pass the quadrangular space?

A
  • axillary nerve
  • posterior circumflex humeral vessels
49
Q

SCAPULAR REGION: structures that pass the triangular space?

A

scapular circumflex artery

50
Q

SCAPULAR REGION: structures that pass the triangular interval?

A
  • profunda brachii
  • radial nerve
51
Q

key muscle in the axilla

A

pectoralis minor

52
Q

triangular muscle beneath pectoralis major

A

pectoralis minor

53
Q

location of pectoralis minor

A

3rd to 4th ribs till coracoid process of scapula

54
Q

ligaments in sternoclavicular joint

A
  • sternoclavicular (sternum to clavicle)
  • costoclavicular (clavicle to first rib)
55
Q

what type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?

A

synovial double plain joint (or saddle joint)

56
Q

what type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint?

A

synovial plane joint

57
Q

what type of joint is the glenohumeral joint?

A

ball and socket

58
Q

foramen found between superior and middle glenohumeral ligaments

A

foramen of Weitbrecht

59
Q

ligaments of the glenohumeral joint

A
  • glenohumeral ligament
  • coracohumeral ligament
  • transverse humeral
60
Q

what bones composes the shoulder girdle?

A

clavicle and scapula

61
Q

what plays an important role in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint

A

rotator cuff muscles

62
Q

what comprises the rotator cuff muscles?

A

Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres - Greater tubercle
Subscapularis - lesser tubercle