Flashcards in Qualitative Research Deck (84)
describe what qualitative research is
focuses on the everyday lives of people, interested in social worlds and studying the 'other'
where does qualitative research originate from?
what are the strengths of qualitative research?
good for information that there is not much knowledge of or can't be measured in a meaningful way.
collects rich data
gives an holistic approach
what is an 'emic' perspective?
the view of the insider - explores experiences and feelings
what is Constructivism?
the theory that we construct our social worlds
what is Reality?
the theory that human activity constructs the properties of our world - it didn't exist before its social invention
what is interpretation in relation to qualitative research?
closely related to social construction
we interpret events in our lives and we all do this differently even if we have witnessed or participated in the same event
how is data collected in qualitative research?
what are the main features of qualitative research?
explores experiences and feelings
explores how these experiences and feelings are interpreted by individuals
explores how interpretation change over time
name the three main methodologies of qualitative research
what is ethnography?
the study of culture - unwritten rules and interactions of people within that culture
what is phenomenology?
the study of phenomena - lived experiences of individuals (av. number of participants less than 10)
describe grounded theory
specific set of methods
aims to generate a theory
a hypothesis generated which can be tested
what is a theory?
a set of ideas about how something might work
what are the limitations of qualitative research?
is not generalizable
what is a sample in qualitative research?
deliberately biased - finds people who will give the richest data on the research subject
people who have experienced a particular phenomena
people who are knowledgeable, articulate and reflective
is a sample in qualitative research large or small?
small (30-40 in ethnography and grounded theory, less than 10 in phenomenology)
name and explain some types of sampling in qualitative research
convenience sampling - they are easy and efficient but not ideal
snowball sampling - can ask participants for others with similar experience
purposive sampling - selecting those who will be most informative
what is maximum variation sampling?
an type of purposive sampling which represents the group a whole
what is homogenous sampling?
when you want to focus on a particular group
in which methodology is theoretical sampling used?
grounded theory - used to find participants who will help generate a theory
what is data saturation and how is it determined?
sampling stops when enough data has been collected to describe or explain the issue. Data saturation is determined when no new ideas emerge
is it possible to generalise qualitative research?
no - but it many be possible to transfer the findings to other settings
what happens during an observation?
the researcher observes and records what is seen - field notes can be taken but also video or audio recording could be used too
what are the benefits of observation?
helpful for exploring things which are hard to articulate
exploring behaviours and dynamic
what are the benefits of interviewing?
exploring individual perceptions of culture or phenomena
are questions in interviews structured?
no - an interview guide is used to guide the interview but questions evolve and are not asked in the same order
questions can change over time to test a theory
what skills are used during the interview?
active listening skills, prompts, probes and open questions
what question should be avoided during interviews?
long questions - difficult to follow
using jargon or unfamiliar terms
leading questions - suggest a positive or negative response