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Flashcards in Quantitative Research Deck (90)
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1

What is a paradigm?

patterns of beliefs and general assumptions

2

Name some alternative terms for a paradigm

research traditions
world views
methodologies

3

name some quantitative methodologies used in nursing research

quantitative - positivism / post positivism

4

name 4 strengths of quantitative research

generalizability
description and prediction
objective
verifiable

5

name 4 limitations of quantitative research

context stripping
explanation needed too
value free observation not possible
absolute truth rarely established

6

what are the key features of quantitative research?

measurable
aims, objectives and hypotheses pre-stated
aim - broad statement
procedures standardised
outcome measures must be reliable and valid
results should be presented statistically

7

In quantitative research what is an objective?

specific detail (eg. research question)

8

In quantitative research what is a hypothesis?

predictions of what is expected to happen with a certain intervention

9

In quantitative research what is a variable?

factors that are being investigated

10

In quantitative research what is does validity mean?

research must measure what it intends to measure

11

What should the results in quantitative research aim to be?

falsifiable (hypothesis testing)
establishing causal relationships
establishing association between variables

12

what is at the top of the hierarchy of evidence in quantitative research?

systems reviews
metanalysis

13

what is at the bottom of the hierarchy of evidence in quantitative research?

ideas
opinions
editorials
anecdotal

14

Name the types of studies in order, from lowest to highest, on the hierarchy of evidence

expert opinion
case series - case report 1
case series - case report 2
case control studies
cohort study 1
cohort study 2
randomised control trial
metanylasis / systems review

15

describe the limitations of an expert opinion

high subjectivity
high bias / errors
little objective research
multiple opinions

16

describe the features of a case series (case report 1) study

descriptive study
less than 10 participants
performed due to rarity of condition

17

describe the features of a case series (case report 2) study

more than 10 participants
can't compare with control group
good for pilot data collection

18

describe the features of a case control study

observational study
conducted in retrospect
matched with a control
unable to attribute causation
control group doesn't have starting condition

19

describe the features of a cohort study 1

looks at associations between one entity and another - eg. smokers and non-smokers

20

describe the features of a cohort study 2

data collected prospectively
collect data you want

21

describe the features of a randomised controlled trial (RCT)

prospective
intervention given
groups randomly allocated
outcome measured and compared
very powerful

22

In a RCT what is an intervention?

something we are doing to the participant

23

what happens in a RCT when the participants are randomised?

allocated to intervention or control group

24

In an RCT was is the attention arm?

similar to intervention arm but without active ingredient

25

what is a null hypothesis?

hypothesises that there will be no difference between the intervention and control arm - study must disprove this assumption

26

what is a dependent variable?

the outcome of interest (eg. wound healing time) - effect

27

what is the independent variable?

the intervention factor (eg. wound dressing used) - cause

28

During RCT recruitment what is the population?

target group we are interested in

29

What must the target group in RCT be?

clearly defined - gives criteria for inclusion in trial

30

What is inclusion and exclusion criteria?

included in trial
excluded from trial