Flashcards in Quantitative Research Deck (90)
What is a paradigm?
patterns of beliefs and general assumptions
Name some alternative terms for a paradigm
name some quantitative methodologies used in nursing research
quantitative - positivism / post positivism
name 4 strengths of quantitative research
description and prediction
name 4 limitations of quantitative research
explanation needed too
value free observation not possible
absolute truth rarely established
what are the key features of quantitative research?
aims, objectives and hypotheses pre-stated
aim - broad statement
outcome measures must be reliable and valid
results should be presented statistically
In quantitative research what is an objective?
specific detail (eg. research question)
In quantitative research what is a hypothesis?
predictions of what is expected to happen with a certain intervention
In quantitative research what is a variable?
factors that are being investigated
In quantitative research what is does validity mean?
research must measure what it intends to measure
What should the results in quantitative research aim to be?
falsifiable (hypothesis testing)
establishing causal relationships
establishing association between variables
what is at the top of the hierarchy of evidence in quantitative research?
what is at the bottom of the hierarchy of evidence in quantitative research?
Name the types of studies in order, from lowest to highest, on the hierarchy of evidence
case series - case report 1
case series - case report 2
case control studies
cohort study 1
cohort study 2
randomised control trial
metanylasis / systems review
describe the limitations of an expert opinion
high bias / errors
little objective research
describe the features of a case series (case report 1) study
less than 10 participants
performed due to rarity of condition
describe the features of a case series (case report 2) study
more than 10 participants
can't compare with control group
good for pilot data collection
describe the features of a case control study
conducted in retrospect
matched with a control
unable to attribute causation
control group doesn't have starting condition
describe the features of a cohort study 1
looks at associations between one entity and another - eg. smokers and non-smokers
describe the features of a cohort study 2
data collected prospectively
collect data you want
describe the features of a randomised controlled trial (RCT)
groups randomly allocated
outcome measured and compared
In a RCT what is an intervention?
something we are doing to the participant
what happens in a RCT when the participants are randomised?
allocated to intervention or control group
In an RCT was is the attention arm?
similar to intervention arm but without active ingredient
what is a null hypothesis?
hypothesises that there will be no difference between the intervention and control arm - study must disprove this assumption
what is a dependent variable?
the outcome of interest (eg. wound healing time) - effect
what is the independent variable?
the intervention factor (eg. wound dressing used) - cause
During RCT recruitment what is the population?
target group we are interested in
What must the target group in RCT be?
clearly defined - gives criteria for inclusion in trial