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Flashcards in Quality Management Deck (33):
1

Plan Quality Management

2.5.1 (Planning Process Area, Quality Mgmt KA)

Process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards

Inputs: Project Charter, Project Management Plan, Project Documents (assumption log, requirements traceability matrix, risk register, stakeholder register), EEF, OPA
Tools & Techniques: Expert Judgement, Data Gathering, Data Analysis, Decision Making, Data Representation, Test and Inspection Planning, Meetings
Outputs: Quality Management Plan, Quality Metrics, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates

2

Conformance to Requirements

2.5 General Term

Product is only as good as the requirements you have written for it.

3

Customer Satisfaction

2.5 General Term

Understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing requirements so that customer expectations are met

4

Fitness for Use

2.5 General Term

Making sure that the product you build has the best design possible to fit the customer's needs.

Would you choose a beautiful, well-designed and constructed product that does not do what you need, or something ugly and a pain in the butt to use? (Joseph Juran)

5

Conformance to Requirements

2.5 General Term

Product needs to do what you wrote down in your requirements specification-- the core of both customer satisfaction and fitness for use.

Requirements should take into account both what will satisfy your customer and the best design possible for the job (Philip Crosby made this idea popular in the 80s)

6

Prevention Over Inspection

2.5 General Term

Quality should be planned, designed, and built into-- not inspected into the project's management or the project's deliverables.

7

Continuous Improvement

2.5 General Term

The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle is the basis for quality improvement as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming.
Initiatives:
- Total Quality Management (TQM)
- Six Sigma
- Lean Six Sigma
- Malcolm Baldrige Model
- Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3)
- Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI)

8

Management Responsibility

2.5 General Term

Success requires the participation of all members of the project team. Though management retains, within its responsibility for quality, a related responsibility to provide suitable resources at adequate capacities.

9

Grade

2.5 General Term

The value people place on a product, as opposed to its quality, which is a measure of whether it does what you need it to do.

10

Cost-Benefit Analysis

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

Compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit

11

Cost of Quality

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

Includes all costs incurred over the life of the project by investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework)

12

Benchmarking

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

Involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance

13

Design of Experiments

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

Statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a project or process under development or in production.

14

Statistical Sampling

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

Involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection

15

Quality Management Plan

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management Output

A component of the Project Management plan that describes how the organization's quality policies will be implemented. It describes how the project management team plans to meet the quality requirements set for the project.

16

Process Improvement Plan

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management Output

Subsidiary or component of the project management plan detailing steps for analyzing project management and product development processes to identify activities that enhance their value.

Areas to consider:
- Process boundaries
- Process configuration
- Process metrics
- Targets for improved performance

17

Quality Metrics

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management Output

Specifically describes a project or product attribute and how the control quality process will measure it

18

Quality Checklists

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management Output

Structured tool, usually component-specific, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.

19

Control Charts

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance.

When a data point falls out of the pre-specified upper/ lower control limits, we say that data point is out of control, and when this happens we say that the entire process is out of control.

Rule of Seven: When seven data points in a row fall on one side of the mean, that's an uncommon enough occurrence that it means your process might have a problem.

20

Cause and Effect Diagrams

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Also known as fishbone diagrams or Ishikawa diagrams. The problem statement place at the head of the fishbone is used as a starting point to trace the problem's source back to its actionable root cause.

You list all of the categories of the defects that you have identified and then write the possible causes of the defect you're analyzing from each category. This helps you see all of the possible causes in one place.

21

Flowcharts

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Also known as process maps because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist for a process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs.

22

Checksheets

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Also known as tally sheets and may be used as a checklist when gathering data. Used to organize facts in a manner that will facilitate the effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem.

Can be used to organize test activities you'll be performing and track whether it passes or fails tests.

23

Pareto Diagrams

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Exists as a special form of vertical bar chart and are used to identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of problem's effects. Categories shown on the horizontal axis exist as a valid probability distribution that accounts for 100% of the possible observations.

Help you figure out which problems need your attention right away. They're based on the idea that a large number of problems are caused by a small number of problems. Pareto Charts plot out the frequency of defects and sort them in descending order. The right axis shows the cumulative percentage.

24

Histograms

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Special form of bar chart and are used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution. Unlike the control chart, the histogram does not consider the influence of time on the variation that exists within a distribution.

Gives you a good idea of how your data breaks down, like whether 158 bugs are mostly critical, high, medium, or low priority

25

Scatter Diagrams

2.5.1 Plan Quality Management TT

One of the Seven Basic Tools of Quality

Plot ordered pairs (X,Y) and are sometimes called correlation charts because they seek to explain a change in the dependent variable.

Show how two different types of data relate to each other. E.g. The more test cases that pass, the fewer the number of bugs that are found

26

Manage Quality

3.5.2 (Executing Process Area, Quality Mgmt KA)

Ensures the quality standards are being followed, to ensure unfinished works would meet the quality requirements
- by quality assurance department or sponsor/customer not actively involved in the project
- primarily concerned with overall process improvement for activities and processes (rather than the deliverable)
- utilize the data collected in Control Quality Process

Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, OPA
Tools & Techniques: Data Gathering, Data Analysis, Decision Making, Data Representation, Audits, Design for X (DfX), Problem Solving, Quality Improvement Methods
Outputs: Quality Report, Test and Evaluation Documents, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates

27

Quality Audits

3.5.2 Manage Quality TT

A structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.

28

Process Analysis

3.5.2 Manage Quality TT

Follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements. Compares your project's process data to goals that have been set for the company.

29

Quality Management and Control Tools

3.5.2 Manage Quality TT

Same ones from the Plan Quality Management section, but instead of using them to look for problems with specific defects, you'll use them to look at the overall process.
- Affinity Diagrams
- Process Decision Program Charts
- Interrelationship Digraphs
- Tree Diagrams
- Prioritization Matrices
- Activity Network Diagrams
- Matrix Diagrams

30

Kaizen

3.5.2 Manage Quality Term

Means continuous improvement. It's all about constantly looking at the way you do your work and trying to make it better.

31

Just-In-Time

3.5.2 Manage Quality Term

Means keeping only the inventory you need on hand when you need it

32

Plan-Do-Check-Act

3.5.2 Manage Quality Term

One way to go about improving your process, and it's used by a lot of Kaizen practitioners. Popularized by quality theorist, W. Edwards Deming, also known as the Deming Cycle.

It's about making small improvements, and measuring how much benefit they make before you change your process to include them.

33

Control Quality

4.5.3 (Monitoring & Controlling Process Area, Quality Mgmt KA)

The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.

Inputs: Project Management Plan, Project Documents, Approved Change Requests, Deliverables, Work Performance Data, EEF, OPA
Tools & Techniques: Data Gathering, Data Analysis, Inspection, Testing/product Evaluations, Data Representation, Meetings
Outputs: Quality Control Measurements, Verified Deliverables, Work Performance Information, Change Requests, Project Management Plan Updates, Project Documents Updates