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Flashcards in Quantitative coursework Deck (8)
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What is behaviour?

A response to a change in an organisms surrounding environment in order to increase its chances of survival.


What are innate behaviours?

A response that occurs without any need for learning. It is inherited and is stereotyped in the sense that it is carried out in the same way each time by all members of the same species.


Why do invertebrates have innate behaviours as opposed to learned?

- They have short life-spans, so don't have time to learn appropriate behaviours.
- They are solitarty so do not interact with each other.
- They do not take care of their young.


What are reflexes?

Involuntary actions that follow a specific pattern each time in response to a stimulus. Usually used as a mechanism for escape from danger (escape reflexes).


What are example of reflexes?

- Earthworms retreat underground when they detect vibrations above ground.
- Humans move their hands quickly away when touching a hot/sharp object.
- Pupils dilate in response to dimming in light levels.


What are kineses?

A non-directional orientation behaviour whereby the movement speed of an organism increases when in unfavourable conditions and the organism moves in random directions, until more favourable conditions are reached and the organism slows down/stops.


What are examples of kineses?

- Woodlice prefer dark/damp conditions as they prevent them from drying out and protect them from predators.
- When paced in light/dry conditions, they move quickly in random directions until they find darker/damper conditions, when they eventually slow down and stop.


What are taxes?

A directional orientation behaviour whereby an organism actively moves away from a stimulus or towards it.
- Chemotaxis relates to a chemical stimulus.
- Phototaxis refers to a light stimulus.
Direction of movement is in relation to the stimulus.
- Positive taxis is movement towards the stimulus.
- Negative taxis is movement away from the stimulus.