Flashcards in Queen Elizabeth I Deck (56):
Believed to be chosen by god - could declare war and peace, rule in legal cases, grant titles, land, money and jobs (patronage)
Secretary of State...
Elizabeths most important privy councillor
Members of nobility used t entertain and advise monarch. Had influence rather than power
Leading courtiers and advisors as well as government officials
House of Commons/ lords, few people could vote, granted money and passed laws
Each county had one, chosen by monarch, members of nobility who trained local military and enforced police
Why was legitimacy a problem Elizabeth faced?
- daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife
- 3rd of Henry’s children to become queen
- catholics did not accept her because of her religion and she was born out of wedlock
Why was gender and marriage a problem Elizabeth faced?
- Women ‘couldnt’ rule as well as men
- if she married her husband could rule instead
Why was financial weakness a problem Elizabeth faced?
- Elizabeth inherited £300,000 in debt from her predecessor who waged wars and lost land
- To defend England she need money but didn’t want to depend to much on parliament
Why was France a problem Elizabeth faced?
- treaty of cateau-cambresis as a result of lost war in the 1550’s which meant England lost Calais to France
- France was a catholic country which had allied with Scotland
- mqs mother was the french mary of guise who had french troops in Scotland
Catholics (north and west)...
- pope head of church
- bible and services in Latin
- church is intermediary between god and people
- priest should wear special clothing
- churches are decorated
- priests cannot marry
Protestants (south and east)...
- monarch head of church
- bible and services in english
- people have own relationship with god
- priests are not special
- churches are plain
- priests can marry
What was the religious settlement, Act of Supremacy about?
- Elizabeth is supreme governor of church
- ecclesiastical high commission to maintain discipline in church and keep settlement going
What was the religious settlement, Act of Uniformity about?
- changed appearance of churches
- everyone had to attend church on Sundays and holy days otherwise they were fined up to a weeks pay
What was the religious settlement, royal injunctions about?
- instructions how to worship god
- clergy teaching the royal supremacy
- no one could preach with out a license
- clergy wore special clothes
What challenged the puritans in the religious settlements?
- CRUCIFIX ~ didn’t like the idols it represented
- VESTMENT ~ priests shouldn’t wear special clothes as they’re not meant to be separated
What happened to the catholics in the religious settlements?
- counter reformation began to fight against Protestantism
- in 1566 pope said catholics should not attend CoE services, Elizabeth didn’t want so punish them to harshly
- nobility threatened catholics
- spain and France tried to make Elizabeth change her ways
Who was mqs?
She was catholic and had a strong claim to the english throne, she was Henry VII’s great granddaughter
What was the treaty of Edinburgh, 1560?
Elizabeth helped Scotland’s Protestant lords send mqs mother back to France which was done secretly to avoid angering french catholics
Why did mqs come to England?
Her second husband was murdered and she was suspected to be involved so she fled and asked elizabeth for help
What was Elizabeth four options to do with mqs?
- help her regain the throne
- hand her over to Scottish lords
- let her go abroad
- keep her in England (this is what she did - imprionment)
When was mqs executed?
What did the Act for the preservation of the queens safety prevent?
- mary couldn’t become queen
- mary could be investigated and found out about (walsingham did this)
What was Elizabeth’s foreign policy aims?
- developing and improving trade to improve the English economy
- protecting England’s borders
- protecting throne
- avoiding war
Merchants explored new world to improve trade however, spain controlled Netherlands (main route into European trade) and then much of the americas (tobacco, sugar cane a silver). This led to conflict
Who was Francis drake and what did he do?
English merchant who made Elizabeth lots of money. He upset the Spanish by stealing silver from ships. After 1577 he was sent to South America to bring back gold, silver and spices as well as attacking Spain’s colonies.
How did she pressurise Phillip II?
- indirectly helping Dutch Protestants resist the Spanish
- encouraging privateers to attack Spanish ships and colonies
- pursuing relations with France
- encouraging others to fight the Spanish in the Netherlands
Why did Phillip II launch the Spanish Armada? (5)
- RELIGION ~ pope wanted to overthrow Elizabeth, promised to forgive sins of those who took part in war
- POLITICS ~ treaties of joinville and nonsuch, wanted to add England to empire
- PROVOCATION ~ drake attacking ships, E supporting Dutch
- CIRCUMSTANCES ~ duke of Parma had success in Netherlands and E was hesitant so she could be beaten
- STRATEGY ~ channel to N, where they would meet Parma and army, which would transport 27000 troops to Kent then depose E
How did England defeat the Spanish Armada?
- English ship design ~ galleons were smaller and quicker, cannons were quicker to reload (only 24 of them)
- Spanish supplies ~ there wood was bad and they were short on cannonballs due to drake
- planning and communication ~ Parma did not control deep sea ports
- english tactics
What was the consequences of winning the armada?
- Elizabeth looked strong (propaganda)
- encouraged Dutch rebels
- english navy was strong enough to trade and explore powerfully
- Spanish lost money, power and marked beginning of long decline in Spanish fortunes
What were the attitude to education?
Represented social hierarchy. Designed to prepare people for the rest of their life
What was the impact of education?
Figures rose from 20% of men and 10% of women to 30% of men and still 10% of women being literate. Which suggests only boys education improved
Why did poverty increase? (4)
- population growth ~ 35%
- rising prices ~ bad harvests, prices increased faster than wages
- sheep farming ~ wool was more profitable than crops, farms took over ‘common land’ and less labourers were required
Changing policies towards poor
- 1563 statute of artificers: aimed to ensure poor relief was collected
- 1572 vagabond act: aimed to deter vagrancy
- 1576 poor relief act: aimed to distinguished between impotent and able bodied poor
Why did Elizabethans have an urge to explore?
- expanding trade
- slave trade
- adventure and exploration
- improvement in technology
- improved maps
- improved ship designs
When did drake circumnavigate the globe and what was the effects?
- between December 1577 and September 1580
- cemented England as a great sea-faring nation
- nova Albion was made part f Elizabethan England
- encouraged new colonies in america
- drakes actions provoked Spanish
When was the revolt of the northern earls?
Who was involved in the revolt of the northern earls?
- Thomas Percy
- Charles Neville
- Thomas Howard
- Jane Neville
Context of revolt of the northern earls
Elizabeth made changes to religion and her court when she came to the throne. Catholic (north) did not like these changes
What was the basic plan of the revolt of the northern earls?
Northern earls would control Durham before marching south to join duke of Norfolk, before being joined by Spanish troops. Mqs would marry duke of Norfolk
What was the outcomes of the revolt of the northern earls?
Treason laws became harsher, Percy and Neville families lost power in north, catholics were treated harsher and the pope excommunicated Elizabeth
When was the ridolfi plot?
Who was involved in the ridolfi plot?
- roberto ridolfi
- Phillip II
- duke of alba
Context of ridolfi plot
Pope had been sent out a papal bull which ordered catholics to object Elizabeth. He sent spies to England
What was the basic plan of the ridolfi plot?
Murder Elizabeth, mqs on throne and marry the duke of Norfolk. Get Spanish support from Phillip II who had troops in Netherlands
What were the outcomes of the ridolfi plot?
Duke of Norfolk was executed in June 1572, Elizabeth worried about Spanish intentions and tried to improve relations with France
When was the throckmorton plot?
Who was involved in the throckmorton plot?
- duke of guise
- Francis throckmorton
- Phillip II
Context of the throckmorton plot
More laws had been passed against catholics
What was the basic plan of the throckmorton plot?
French would invade England, free mqs, overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism’s in England with Spanish financial support
What was the outcomes of the throckmorton plot?
- threat of foreign invasion became bigger
- life for catholics became even more difficult and many fled
When was the babington plot?
Who was involved in the babington plot?
- duke of guise
- Phillip II
- Anthony babington
Context of the babington plot
Catholics were either fleeing or being treated badly and they were still trying to worship in secret
What was the basic plan of the babington plot?
Murder Elizabeth, encourage catholics to rebel, alongside an invasion from duke of guise with 60000 men, support from Phillip II and pope