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Flashcards in American West Deck (27):

When and what was the Indian removal act?

-46,000 indians from eastern states are forced by US government to relocate to the great plain


When and what was the oregon trail?

- 1836
- trails opens safe passage for settlers across great plains and Rocky Mountains to Oregon country


When and what was the mormon migration?

- 1846-47
- migration of those from Mormon faith westwards to find their homeland. They settled in sal lake city


When and what was the gold rush?

- 1849
- discovery of gold in California led to huge migration to the west, over 300,000 moved by 1855


When and what was the fort Laramie treaty?

- 1851
- agreement between Indians and government that Indians would not attack settlers using Oregon trail and in exchange for large areas of land being given to Indians


When and what was the homestead act?

- 1862
- government offered 160 acres of for $30 to settlers to encourage settlement on the Great Plains


When and what was the red clouds war?

- 1866-68
- Sioux go to war against whites in Dakota leading to the fetterman massacre and second fort Laramie treaty


When and what was the transcontinental railroad?

- 1869
- first railroad connecting east and west america is completed, increasing settlement in west


When and what was the battle of the little big horn?

- 1876
- general clusters soldiers were wiped out by crazy horses indians, in a major defeat for the US government


How many people crossed the Oregon trail in total?



What were the problems of the journey of the Oregon trail?

- needed to complete before winter
- sandstorms, quicksand, extreme heat and cold, lightning storms
- getting stuck, ill or running out of supplies
- enough food to survive journey


Donner Party...

- may 1846
- led by Jacob and George Donner
- left Missouri with 60 wagons and 300 people
- trapped in heavy snow and turned to cannibalism to survive
- only 46 survived


What places did John smith settle the Mormons between 1831-46?

- Kirtland, ohio ~ 1837 depression, Mormon bank collapsed
- independence, Missouri ~ vey unpopular as they were anti slave
- nauvoo, Illinois ~ 35,000 settled, smith said polygamy was okay and in 1845 he was arrested and murdered


Why did Brigham Young decide to move west to the great salt lake valley?

It was isolated, had water and farming land, Mormons could live freely and most importantly it wasn’t part of the USA


What was brigham Young’s plan?

1. Ensure safe journey west
2. Farm an arid landscape and provide fresh water
3. Allocate land for each family
4. Become self-sufficient and free to worship
5. Encourage mass Mormon settlement
6. Keep order with no conflict


What were consequences of the gold rush?

- thousands came from all over the world
- over 25,000 Chinese miners sailed from Hong Kong
- California population grew from 15,000 in 1848 to 300,000 by 1855


What problems did settlers face on the plains?

- natural disasters ~ heatwaves, prairie fires and grasshoppers
- extreme weather
- poor soil ~ grasses and roots were dense, crops were not suited to climate
- drought ~ no rainfall between 1859 and 1860
- lack of building materials
- lack of water


What would the Indians do in the fort Laramie treaty?

- end fighting
- allow migrants to travel safely
- permit railroad companies enter land safely
- allow roads and army posts to be built
- pay compensation if terms were broken


What would the government do in the fort Laramie treaty?

- protect them from white settlers
- agree Indians to specific territories
- pay tribes annuity of $50,000


What were the key problems of the west? (9)

- isolation
- poverty ~ unemployment
- culture of violence ~ everyone carried guns
- new crimes ~ claim jumping, road agents
- disorderly lifestyle ~ alcohol, gambling and prostitution
- racism ~ against Chinese
- law enforcement ~ not enough enforcement available, crimes were unpunished
- gangs ~ San Francisco
- poor court system


Why was the homestead act important?

- first proper settlement of the Great Plains
- allowed homeless and landless to purchase own land
- by 1867 over 6 million acres had been claimed by homesteaders, this increased to 80 million


What were the limitations of the homestead act?

- 80 out of 500 million acres available were homestead
- rich took more land for cheap and got people to claim for them
- 60% failed and quit


When was the little crows war?



When was the sand creek masaccre?



When was the red clouds war?



What happened in little crows war?

- santee Sioux moved his tribe to reservation in return of $80,000 a year
- the land had poor land and money never arrived
- 12000 Sioux were starving which led them to steal and become in debt
- in august 1862 the Sioux burnt down agency, stole food and attacked white settlements (600 settlers and soldiers were killed)
- US army publicly executed 38 Sioux


What happened in the red clouds war?

- red cloud and 3000 Sioux attacked forts and settlers because they let on walking across there land
- December 1866, captain William fetterman and 80 soldiers rode into a Sioux trap of 1000 warriors, this was the worst defeat for the US army in the west