Queen, Government and religion (1558-69) Flashcards Preview

Edexcel GCSE History- Early Elizabethan England > Queen, Government and religion (1558-69) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Queen, Government and religion (1558-69) Deck (108)
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What was the social hierarchy of Elizabethan England (high to low)?

-Tenant farmers
-Landless or labouring poor
-Vagrants, homeless


How was social hierarchy determined?

It was usually determined by how much land you had and whether you owned or rented it. Yeomen were men who held a small amount of land or an estate (lower gentry). Tenant farmers farmed rented land that belonged to the gentry or yeomen.


What was the social hierarchy of towns in Elizabethan England?

-Merchants (usually owned lots of property)
-Professionals (Lawyers, doctors, teachers, clergy etc)
-Business owners (usually highly skilled craftsmen that employed others. Included silversmiths, carpenters, tailors etc. They were organised into guilds.)
-Skilled craftsmen (people who had learned a skill or trade.Included apprentices)
-Unskilled workers and the unemployed


What were guilds?

Trade associations formed of business owners. They monitored standards, working conditions and who were allowed to practise the trade.


What were the five key parts of the Government in Elizabethan England?

-Privy council
-Lords Lieutenant
-Justices of the Peace


What were the key features of the court?

-They were a body of people who lived near the same palace or house of the monarch
-Mainly consisted of the nobility (monarch's key servants, advisers and friends)
-Attending court required the monarch's permission


What was the role of the court?

-To entertain and advise the monarch
-To publicly display wealth and power
-Courtiers (usualy members of the nobility who spent most their lives with Elizabeth I) had influence with the Queen rather than actual power


What were the key features of the Privy Council?

-Made up of leading courtiers, advisers, nobles and senior government officials
-Approximately 19 members on the Privy Council selected by the monarch
-They met at least three times a week and were often attended and presided by the Queen


What was the role of the Privy Council?

-To monitor Justices of Peace
-To monitor the proceedings of Parliament
-To oversee law and order, local government and the security of England
-Make sure the monarch's final decisions were carried out
-To debate current issues and advise the monarch on government policy


What were the key features of parliament?

-Made up of House of Lords (which includes bishops) and House of Commons
-Could only be called and dismissed by the monarch
-Elections were held before each new parliament but few people could vote
-Elizabeth called parliament ten times during her reign


What was the role of parliament?

-To grant extraordinary taxation (additional tax to pay for unexpected expenses like war)
-Pass laws (Act of Parliament)
-Offer advice to monarch


What were the key features of a Lord Lieutenant?

-Chosen by the Queen
-Members of the nobility and often the Privy Council
-Essential in maintaining the monarch's power and England's defences


What were the roles of a Lord Lieutenant?

-Part of the local government
-For overseeing the enforcement of policies
-In charge of raising and training local militia (military force of ordinary people, usually raised in an emergency) and overseeing county defences


What were the key features of the Justices of Peace?

-JoPs were large land owners who kept law and order in their local area.
- They were unpaid and reported to the Privy Council.
-It was a position of status so it was a very popular job


What were the roles of the Justices of peace?

-To make sure all social and economic policies were carried out
-Part of the local government
-To hear county court cases every three months for more serious crimes


What was Elizabeth I role in politics and the government?

-Because of the divine right she made government policy with the advice of the Privy Council
-She could declare war and peace
-Call and dismiss parliament and agree or reject any laws they voted for
-Rule in some legal cases (e.g. if law was unclear or if people appealed for judgement)
-Grant titles, land, money and jobs


What is patronage?

To provide someone with an important job or position through a grant of land, a title or championing a cause. It is an effective way of gaining support and controlling people. The queen is the ultimate patron


Who was Elizabeth's most important Privy Councillor?

The Secretary of State. He was the person the Queen was closest to in government and advised the Queen on matters important to the Crown. Sir William Cecil was the most significant person to hold this position under Elizabeth where he stood until 1573 when he was raised to nobility.


Why were parliament important to the Queen?

-Extraordinary taxation could not be done without their agreement
-The Queen's orders (proclamations) could not be enforced in law courts whereas Acts of Parliaments could so really important policies had to be approved by them.


What was the Royal Prerogative?

The areas only the monarch had the right to decide upon. It was Elizabeth's right to stop Parliament discussing issues that she didn't want discussed like foreign policy, marriage and succession.


Who chose the candidates for election?

The Privy councillors. Only wealthy men could vote or become MPs. Most elections went unchallenged.


Were MPs ever punished?

If MPs went too far they were sent to the Tower of London (usually by the Queen) but they were always released.


Why was Elizabeth I legitimacy to the throne questioned?

-It was essential that a monarch was born with their reigning parents (King and Queen) still married (wedlock)
-Her legitimacy was questioned because of how her father Henry VIII had divorced his first wife before marrying Elizabeth's mother Anne Boleyn


Why was Henry VIII divorce to Catherine of Aragon controversial?

-Henry was disallowed to divorce Catherine of Aragon(who failed him a male heir) without the grant of the Pope as Henry was Roman Catholic
-After failing to get the grant, Henry created the Church of England and put himself as its head. He then granted himself a divorce (annulment) and married Anne Boleyn and had Elizabeth.
-Committed Catholics refused to acknowledge the divorce as the pope had not agreed to it.


Why did Elizabeth not want to marry despite many people wanting her to?

-Because then she would be sidelined by her husband in perspective of power
-She would have to marry a foreign prince so England would not be their priority
-She would have to be an obedient wife


What is a Queen regnant?

A Queen regnant is a reigning queen that rules by her own right. Mary I's reign (the monarch before Elizabeth) as a Queen regnant went disastrously. Men were supposed to have authority as they and the bible believed that women were incapable of having control and power


Why was Mary I's reign a disaster?

-England had lost the battle with France when they had allied with Spain. Morale was low.
-Mary's marriage to King Philip II of Spain was so unpopular that it caused rebellions.
-England's finances were poor and so many of its people were too. Several bad harvests led to disease, hunger and poverty
-Mary burned almost 300 people for their religious beliefs (Protestantism). These were not popular even among Catholics


What were Elizabeth's strengths and characteristics like?

-Elizabeth was highly intelligent and well educated
-She had an excellent grasp for politics
-She had been held in the Tower of London after being suspected of treason against Mary
-Understood the dangerous world of court
-Elizabeth was confident, charismatic and persuasive
-Her fiery temper caused some fear among the government
-She took a long time to make decisions


What was the financial situation like when Elizabeth I took to the throne?

-The crown was in a £300,000 debt which was huge in 1558
-The annual income for the crown was £286,667 approximately


How could money be raised by the monarch?

-Through rents and income from their own land
-Taxes from trade (customs duties)
-Subsidies (additional taxes that had to be agreed by parliament.
-Profits of justice (fines)