Flashcards in Queen, Government and religion (1558-69) Deck (108):
What was the social hierarchy of Elizabethan England (high to low)?
-Landless or labouring poor
How was social hierarchy determined?
It was usually determined by how much land you had and whether you owned or rented it. Yeomen were men who held a small amount of land or an estate (lower gentry). Tenant farmers farmed rented land that belonged to the gentry or yeomen.
What was the social hierarchy of towns in Elizabethan England?
-Merchants (usually owned lots of property)
-Professionals (Lawyers, doctors, teachers, clergy etc)
-Business owners (usually highly skilled craftsmen that employed others. Included silversmiths, carpenters, tailors etc. They were organised into guilds.)
-Skilled craftsmen (people who had learned a skill or trade.Included apprentices)
-Unskilled workers and the unemployed
What were guilds?
Trade associations formed of business owners. They monitored standards, working conditions and who were allowed to practise the trade.
What were the five key parts of the Government in Elizabethan England?
-Justices of the Peace
What were the key features of the court?
-They were a body of people who lived near the same palace or house of the monarch
-Mainly consisted of the nobility (monarch's key servants, advisers and friends)
-Attending court required the monarch's permission
What was the role of the court?
-To entertain and advise the monarch
-To publicly display wealth and power
-Courtiers (usualy members of the nobility who spent most their lives with Elizabeth I) had influence with the Queen rather than actual power
What were the key features of the Privy Council?
-Made up of leading courtiers, advisers, nobles and senior government officials
-Approximately 19 members on the Privy Council selected by the monarch
-They met at least three times a week and were often attended and presided by the Queen
What was the role of the Privy Council?
-To monitor Justices of Peace
-To monitor the proceedings of Parliament
-To oversee law and order, local government and the security of England
-Make sure the monarch's final decisions were carried out
-To debate current issues and advise the monarch on government policy
What were the key features of parliament?
-Made up of House of Lords (which includes bishops) and House of Commons
-Could only be called and dismissed by the monarch
-Elections were held before each new parliament but few people could vote
-Elizabeth called parliament ten times during her reign
What was the role of parliament?
-To grant extraordinary taxation (additional tax to pay for unexpected expenses like war)
-Pass laws (Act of Parliament)
-Offer advice to monarch
What were the key features of a Lord Lieutenant?
-Chosen by the Queen
-Members of the nobility and often the Privy Council
-Essential in maintaining the monarch's power and England's defences
What were the roles of a Lord Lieutenant?
-Part of the local government
-For overseeing the enforcement of policies
-In charge of raising and training local militia (military force of ordinary people, usually raised in an emergency) and overseeing county defences
What were the key features of the Justices of Peace?
-JoPs were large land owners who kept law and order in their local area.
- They were unpaid and reported to the Privy Council.
-It was a position of status so it was a very popular job
What were the roles of the Justices of peace?
-To make sure all social and economic policies were carried out
-Part of the local government
-To hear county court cases every three months for more serious crimes
What was Elizabeth I role in politics and the government?
-Because of the divine right she made government policy with the advice of the Privy Council
-She could declare war and peace
-Call and dismiss parliament and agree or reject any laws they voted for
-Rule in some legal cases (e.g. if law was unclear or if people appealed for judgement)
-Grant titles, land, money and jobs
What is patronage?
To provide someone with an important job or position through a grant of land, a title or championing a cause. It is an effective way of gaining support and controlling people. The queen is the ultimate patron
Who was Elizabeth's most important Privy Councillor?
The Secretary of State. He was the person the Queen was closest to in government and advised the Queen on matters important to the Crown. Sir William Cecil was the most significant person to hold this position under Elizabeth where he stood until 1573 when he was raised to nobility.
Why were parliament important to the Queen?
-Extraordinary taxation could not be done without their agreement
-The Queen's orders (proclamations) could not be enforced in law courts whereas Acts of Parliaments could so really important policies had to be approved by them.
What was the Royal Prerogative?
The areas only the monarch had the right to decide upon. It was Elizabeth's right to stop Parliament discussing issues that she didn't want discussed like foreign policy, marriage and succession.
Who chose the candidates for election?
The Privy councillors. Only wealthy men could vote or become MPs. Most elections went unchallenged.
Were MPs ever punished?
If MPs went too far they were sent to the Tower of London (usually by the Queen) but they were always released.
Why was Elizabeth I legitimacy to the throne questioned?
-It was essential that a monarch was born with their reigning parents (King and Queen) still married (wedlock)
-Her legitimacy was questioned because of how her father Henry VIII had divorced his first wife before marrying Elizabeth's mother Anne Boleyn
Why was Henry VIII divorce to Catherine of Aragon controversial?
-Henry was disallowed to divorce Catherine of Aragon(who failed him a male heir) without the grant of the Pope as Henry was Roman Catholic
-After failing to get the grant, Henry created the Church of England and put himself as its head. He then granted himself a divorce (annulment) and married Anne Boleyn and had Elizabeth.
-Committed Catholics refused to acknowledge the divorce as the pope had not agreed to it.
Why did Elizabeth not want to marry despite many people wanting her to?
-Because then she would be sidelined by her husband in perspective of power
-She would have to marry a foreign prince so England would not be their priority
-She would have to be an obedient wife
What is a Queen regnant?
A Queen regnant is a reigning queen that rules by her own right. Mary I's reign (the monarch before Elizabeth) as a Queen regnant went disastrously. Men were supposed to have authority as they and the bible believed that women were incapable of having control and power
Why was Mary I's reign a disaster?
-England had lost the battle with France when they had allied with Spain. Morale was low.
-Mary's marriage to King Philip II of Spain was so unpopular that it caused rebellions.
-England's finances were poor and so many of its people were too. Several bad harvests led to disease, hunger and poverty
-Mary burned almost 300 people for their religious beliefs (Protestantism). These were not popular even among Catholics
What were Elizabeth's strengths and characteristics like?
-Elizabeth was highly intelligent and well educated
-She had an excellent grasp for politics
-She had been held in the Tower of London after being suspected of treason against Mary
-Understood the dangerous world of court
-Elizabeth was confident, charismatic and persuasive
-Her fiery temper caused some fear among the government
-She took a long time to make decisions
What was the financial situation like when Elizabeth I took to the throne?
-The crown was in a £300,000 debt which was huge in 1558
-The annual income for the crown was £286,667 approximately
How could money be raised by the monarch?
-Through rents and income from their own land
-Taxes from trade (customs duties)
-Subsidies (additional taxes that had to be agreed by parliament.
-Profits of justice (fines)
How did Elizabeth help legitimise her rightful claim to the throne?
She campaigned for her mother Anne Boleyn to be remembered in a positive way; as Henry's greatest love and a martyr for the Protestant cause
What was the problem that Elizabeth had to overcome to stay powerful?
She had to be wealthy as defending England and the throne was expensive . However, taxes were unpopular and parliament had to agree to them. Parliament could make demands on Elizabeth because of this so she had to not rely on Parliament for her income
Why were France threatening for England?
They were wealthier and had a larger population than England. They were also friends with England's other enemy Scotland in what was known as the Auld Alliance. Mary, Queen of Scots was also married to the French heir Francis and later became queen of France in 1559
Why were Scotland threatening aside from their friendship with France?
Mary, Queen of Scots declared herself the legitimate Catholic claimant to the English throne when Mary I died. She was the granddaughter of Henry VII's sister. She was also a strong catholic so could recieve support from the people who were against the marriage of Henry VII and Anne Boleyn. Scotland was an independent country and had a traditional feud with England and the border between the two countries is remote and hard to defend.
What were Elizabeth's concerns about France and Spain?
Elizabeth was concerned that through Spain's and France's hate for each other they would unite through their catholic faith. Protestants and Catholics had had conflicts throughout Europe and Elizabeth was concerned that France and Spain would turn on England as it was a protestant country.
Why did Queen Elizabeth put regaining the port of Calais in her foreign policy?
England had held the French port of Calais since 1347 until England had been humiliated after they lost the war in France with Spain. The treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis meant England had to give Calais back to the French. Calais was important for trading with Spain as well as being a military base in France. Elizabeth wanted to take back what had belonged to her ancestors but France were threatening.
What was the European reformation?
The European reformation was when people, known as Protestants, abandoned the Roman Catholic faith as they believed it had become corrupt and greedy. They established their own churches without the pope.
When did the English Reformation take place?
It began in 1532 when Henry VIII created the Church of England. However, Henry was not a true protestant. By 1558,the Reformation was tearing up Europe and dividing countries.
What are the key features of a Roman Catholic church?
-The Pope is the head of the church
-Underneath the pope are the cardinals, archbishops, bishops and priests
-Church services and the bible should be in Latin
-The church can forgive sins
-Priests are special and should wear vestments
-During mass a miracle occurs (bread and wine represents Jesus)
-Churches should highly decorate and honour God
-There are seven sacraments (Special church ceremonies)
-Priests are forbidden to marry
What are the key features of a Protestant church?
-There should not be a pope
-Not necessary to have cardinals, archbishops or bishops
-The bible and church services should be in your own language
-People have a direct relationship with God through prayer and bible study
-Bread and wine represents the last supper, not a miracle
-Sins can only be forgiven by God
-Priests are not special so should not wear special clothing
-Churches should be plain and simple so as not to distract from God
-Only two sacraments(baptism and holy communion)
-Priests can marry
What was the problem Elizabeth I faced with the clergy?
Elizabeth was the first real protestant monarch but most of her clergy (religious leaders) were Roman Catholic and were in the House of Lords. Although, many priests changed their religion to keep their job, some were devout and went against the Queen.
Where were the majority of Catholic dioceses in England located?
Most Roman Catholic dioceses (areas looked after by a bishop) were in the North and Western parts of England. They tended to be far away from London.
Where were the majority of Protestant dioceses in England located?
London, East Anglia and the south east were more in favour of Protestantism. This is because the had links with the Netherlands and German states where Protestantism had become popular and most Protestant materials come from to London.
What were puritans?
They were radical protestants. Many of them came back to England when Elizabeth I came to power. This was because they had gone into exile in more tolerant protestant societies whilst "bloody" Mary I was on the throne. Mary I burned about 300 protestants
How did Elizabeth I try to compromise when it came to England's religion so she kept in control?
She created a religious settlement
What were the three main features of Elizabeth's religious settlement?
-The Act of Supremacy (made Elizabeth supreme. Clergy and Royal officials had to swear a loyal oath of allegiance)
-The Act of Uniformity (established the appearance of churches and the form of services they held)
-The Act of Injunctions (set of instructions that reinforced the other two acts and told people how they should worship God and what the structure of the services should be like)
What was made under the Act of Supremacy?
An Ecclesiastical High Commission was established to maintain discipline and enforce the queen's religious settlement. Members of the clergy whose loyalty was in doubt could be punished
What was to be used in all church services according to the Act of Uniformity and why?
A Book of Common prayers. This was because the prayer book was written in such a way so that the service was unclear. As a result, protestants and Catholics could interpret teachings differently. It taught that priests had to wear vestments as well.
How often did people have to attend church according to the Act of Uniformity?
People had to attend church every Sunday and on holy days, else they would be fined one shilling (the average workers weekly pay).
What issues did the Royal Injunctions cover?
-Clergy had to teach the Royal Supremacy
-People who did not attend church had to be reported to the Privy Council
-Each Parish had to have a copy of the Bible in English
-No one was allowed to preach without a licence from the Government
-Pilgrimages were banned
-Clergy had to wear special vestments
How did the Royal Injunctions make the Religious Settlement more acceptable?
-The banning of pilgrimages pleased Protestants and made the Religious Settlement more acceptable
-Images were allowed in churches so people kept familiar with their worshipping conditions
How did the Clergy take the Act of Supremacy?
Eight thousand priests and less important clergy took the oath of supremacy. This showed the religious settlement was successful as there were only 10,000 parishes in England.
Only one Bishop agreed to the oath so Elizabeth had to appoint 27 new bishops. This allowed Elizabeth to strengthen Protestantism.
How did the people take Elizabeth's Religious Settlement?
The majority of ordinary people accepted the new religious settlement. The new prayer book worked with Catholics as they could interpret it in a Roman Catholic way. In the North, it took a while for services to change but they did. Elizabeth made it clear she did not want the settlement enforced too strongly, even against recusants. Some Protestants welcomed Elizabeth's settlement with violent enthusiasm (destruction of church ornaments and statues)
What were the main roles of the Church of England during Elizabeth I's reign?
-Running Church Courts
-Legitimising power to monarch
-Enforced the Religious Settlements
-Gave guidance to communities
-Controlled what was preached
What did church courts do?
Church courts dealt with Church matters but also acted on minor disputes and moral issues such as: marriage, sexual offences and slander
How was the settlement enforced?
Starting in 1559, visitations (inspections of clergy) were held every three to four years. They checked if the settlement was being followed. In 1559, 400 clergy were dismissed after failure upon inspection, the visitations also caused a great deal of destruction to decorations and statues in churches. The Bishops (who undertook the inspections) in later years checked on the licences of professionals in the parish as well as the clergy, This meant the government were able to monitor other professionals.
Where did the main Puritan Challenge come from during the 1560s?
From within the Church of England itself, especially the Bishops
What were the Puritan clergymen doing?
Ignoring or disobeying parts of the Religious Settlement (e.g. organ music with hymns, kneeling for receiving communion, certain holy days). This threatened Elizabeth's authority as Supreme Governor to the Church of England
What were the two biggest issues over with the Puritan clergymen?
Crucifixes and clothing
What is a crucifix?
An image of Jesus dying on a cross in about 33CE
How did Elizabethan puritans see crucifixes?
They thought they represented idols
How did Elizabeth see crucifixes and what did she do about that?
Elizabeth liked the crucifixes and felt they gave a familiar look and feel to churches. She included them as part of her religious settlement to please her Catholic Subjects and therefore demanded that each church should display a crucifix
How did the Puritans respond to Elizabeth's demands and what happened after?
They threatened to resign so the Queen backed down because there were not enough able Protestant clergymen to take the place of any bishops who were dismissed. Nevertheless, she insisted on keeping a crucifix in the Royal Chapel.
Why did some priests disagree with the special, fancy vestments and what was argued by the opposition?
Some priests thought that elaborate vestments suggested that priests were set apart from ordinary people. However, catholic priests were special because they had the power to turn the bread and the wine into the body and blood of Jesus Christ as well as forgive sins. Protestants did not believe in this though
A rule in Elizabeth's Royal Injunctions wanted clergy to wear special vestments, was this rule followed?
By 1565, it was clear that not all clergy were wearing what the Queen wanted or conducting services properly
What was done to fix the vestment problem?
In 1566, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew Parker, issued further guidelines for priests in his "Book of Advertisements" which followed Elizabeth's guidelines. He also held an exhibition in London to show priests what they must wear and when
How many people turned up to Parker's vestment exhibition?
Of the 110 invited, 37 refused to attend and lost their posts
Was the vestment controversy solved?
Mainly, the majority of priests consented to Elizabeth's insistence, despite some opposition
What was the campaign against Protestantism?
It was a campaign by Catholics to prevent the spread of Protestantism. It also aimed to strengthen Catholicism by supporting local communities, persecuting heretics and encouraging a waging war against protestants. It was known as the counter-reformation
What was papacy?
The system of Church government ruled by the pope
What leadership did the papacy offer in the counter-reformation?
In 1566, the pope issued an instruction to Catholics saying they should not attend Church of England church services
How did Elizabeth respond to the pope's instruction in 1566?
Although there were penalties for those who did not conform to the religious settlement , they were generally not imposed. The punishments included fines, imprisonment, loss of property, jobs or even life. Elizabeth ordered the authorities not to investigate too closely as she did not want to create martyrs
How much of the gentry and nobility were recusants?
About one third of the nobility and a sizeable number of the gentry. They mainly came from the north-west of England
Where did most of the Catholic gentry come from?
Mostly from ancient families, especially in the North of England. (e.g. the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland)
How were the Catholic gentry treated differently in Mary I's reign and Elizabeth I's reign?
Under Mary I, they had been prosperous but with Elizabeth, they found their influences in court greatly reduced. They disliked her favourites, such as Robert Dudley (Earl of Leicester) and Sir William Cecil, who tended to be Protestant and either from new noble families (Dudley) or not noble at all (Cecil).
What did the earls of Northumberland and Westmorland do about their political weakness under Elizabeth I?
In November 1569 , they led a rebellion in the north of England known as the Revolt of the Northern Earls. One of the key events was the taking of Durham Cathedral and the celebration of a full Catholic mass
Did the revolt get much support?
The Catholic religion brought many northerners to the earls' cause. By November 22nd 1569, the rebels controlled land east of the Pennines as far as Braham Moor, north of Leeds. However, the rest of the Catholic nobility refused to support the earls as they stayed loyal to the Queen with the exception to the Duke of Norfolk (England's most senior noble).
How was the Revolt of the Northern Earls stopped?
The rebels were forced to retreat on the 24th November 1569 and the rebellion was successfully put down by royal troops under the leadership of the Earl of Sussex.
What was Elizabeth's response to the unsuccessful revolts?
Hundreds of rebels were executed in towns and cities across the north. This was a public display of the Crown's power. It marked a change between Elizabeth and her Catholic subjects.
What was one of the most dominant Catholic powers in Europe?
The Habsburg family, who controlled both the Spanish and Austrian empires as well as the holy roman empire during Elizabeth I's reign.
What was Elizabeth I 'troubled and perplexed' about in 1562 when she wrote to King Philip II of Spain?
The religious war in France. She thought it might threaten her realm by encouraging religious conflict in England
What did Elizabeth agree to do in France 1562?
She agreed to help the French Protestants hoping to get back Calais in return
What happened with the religious war in France?
The French Protestants made peace with the Catholics, Elizabeth's policy had failed.
What did Elizabeth achieve out of the French religious war?
She achieved nothing as all she did was irritate Philp II of Spain and have to sign another treaty in 1564 confirming that Calais belonged to France (Treaty of Troyes)
What did King Philip II of Spain do to England in 1563 and why?
He banned the import of English Cloth to the Netherlands (part of the Spanish rule). He did this because he looked unfavourably upon Elizabeth's support for the French and Scottish Protestants as he was a devout Roman Catholic. He also believed that English merchants were encouraging the spread of Protestantism in the Netherlands.
How did Elizabeth I respond to King Philip II's trade embargo? What did this do?
Elizabeth retaliated and ceased trading with the Netherlands. This meant that both countries suffered economic loss.
What was Elizabeth concerned about with Spain and France?
She feared that Spain and France might form an alliance against her. In the 1530s, Pope Paul III had excommunicated (expelled from the Catholic Church) Henry VIII after the break with Rome and had then asked France and Spain to invade England and depose of him.
How did the Dutch feel about how Spain was ruling them and why?
Since the 1550s, there had been growing unhappiness among the Dutch people as the Spanish were interfering with the Dutch affairs. King Philip II had decided to reorganise the Dutch government and church, he also brought the Spanish Inquisition to the Netherlands. These actions united both Dutch Catholics and Protestants against Spain.
What was the Spanish Inquisition?
They were a political and religious body set up by Spain in 1478 to keep Spanish Territories true to the Catholic faith. Anyone caught by the Inquisition who was not Catholic could be tortured or burned alive in a public execution
What did the united Dutch Catholics and Protestants do about Spain?
They revolted between 1566-1568. It became known as the Dutch Revolts
What did King Philip II do to solve the issue of the revolts?
He sent the Duke of Alba with 10,000 men to put down the revolts. The revolt had been defeated by 1568`
What council did the Duke of Alba set up in the Netherlands and what did it do?
He established a Council of Troubles (aka the Council of Blood) to enforce both Catholicism and obedience to the Spanish Crown. It was made up of loyal Dutch nobles and Spanish officials. It ignored local law and legal processes, condemning thousands to death(mainly protestants).
What was Elizabeth concerned about to do with the presence of Alba in the Netherlands?
-Alba's large army, with its mission against Protestantism, was within easy striking distance of England. This especially worries Sir William Cecil
-Elizabeth did not want to be seen as Europe's leading Protestant monarch. She wished to avoid war and openly condemned the Dutch rebels. Nevertheless, the rebels still came into England
What did some Dutch rebels do when fleeing?
They fled by taking to the water and they attacked Spanish ships in the English Channel that were carrying men and resources to Alba's armies in the Netherlands. In 1567, Elizabeth allowed these "Sea Beggars" to shelter in English harbours.
What was the event known as the Genoese Loan?
In 1568, Spanish ships carrying gold to pay Alba's troops in the Netherlands also took refuge in English ports from Sea Beggars. The money was a loan to Philp II from bankers in the Italian city of Genoa. Elizabeth decided to take the gold herself, arguing that since it was a loan it didn't belong to Spain but to the Italian bankers. This greatly angered Spain
What was Elizabeth trying to achieve in regards to Spain and the Netherlands? Why?
She hoped to make Spain's task in the Netherlands as hard as possible so that the Spanish forces would become encouraged to leave and allow the Dutch to continue governing themselves like they had done before. This was very risky and become riskier still in 1568 and 1569 with problems to do with Mary Queen of Scots and the Revolt of the Northern Earls
What was Mary, Queen of Scots situation with the English and Scottish throne?
She was Henry VII's great granddaughter (Elizabeth's second cousin) and she was a devout Catholic wth a strong claim to the English throne. Born on the 8th December 1542, she became queen of Scotland at just six days old after her father James I died. Her mother, Mary of Guise was from a powerful Catholic, French noble family.
How and why did Elizabeth I help the Scottish Protestant lords in 1560?
She secretly sent money and troops to them. She did this because she wanted to get rid of the Scottish threat and French threat with Mary of Guise and Mary, Queen of Scots who married King Francis II.
How did the Scottish Rebellion in 1560 end?
The protestants were victors and the Treaty of Edinburgh was made. The treaty said that Mary, Queen of Scots would give up her claim to the English throne.
What did Mary, Queen of Scots do after the Treaty of Edinburgh?
After the death of Francis II in December 1960, Mary returned to Scotland where, although still Queen, the Protestant lords controlled the government. She never approved of the treaty and maintained she still had a claim to the English throne, she wanted to be named Elizabeth's heir but Elizabeth had no intention of doing so
What was Mary's marriage life like in the 1560s?
She married her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley in 1565 and gave birth to their son, James in 1566. In 1567, Darnley was murdered, probably by the Earl of Bothwell and Mary was suspected of being involved. Soon after, Mary married Bothwell. This was seen scandalous by many
What did the Protestant Scottish Lords do in response to Mary's marriage to the Earl of Bothwell?
They rebelled again and forced Mary to abdicate in favour of her son James. She was imprisoned in a castle on an island in the middle of a lake but escaped in 1568 and raised an army in an attempt to win back her throne. Mary's forces were defeated at Langside, near Glasgow, and she fled back to England, seeking Elizabeth 1's help against the rebels.
How was Mary treated by Elizabeth when she came to England?
She was a problem in part for Elizabeth. Elizabeth took pity on her because she had been overthrown by her own subjects which was not approved by the Queen but Elizabeth was aware of the threat, Mary posed. Mary was held in comfort but under guard until Elizabeth decided what to do with her.
What were the interactions between Elizabeth and Mary like whilst both in England?
They never actually met but did exchange letters. Mary asked for a meeting with Elizabeth to persuade her of her innocence in Darnley's murder but her request was refused
What was Mary's court case like in England?
Court convened between October 1568 and January 1569 and the Scottish lords brought letters with them, apparently proving Mary's guilt. Mary thought the situation was outrageous because she was an anointed monarch and refused to give a plea without the guaranteed safety of innocence from Elizabeth but Elizabeth refused
What was the verdict of Mary's court case?
There was no verdict. If found guilty, she would be returned to the Scottish lords as their prisoner, which would have reflected bad on Elizabeth who would have been supporting the deposing of an anointed monarch and cousin. If found not guilty, Mary would be free to raise an army and get Catholic support. As a result, Mary remained in captivity but still posed a threat
What was the plot sparked after Elizabeth refused to name an heir or marry?
In 1569, a plot was hatched to marry Mary to the Duke of Norfolk, England's most senior noble. He was a protestant and so would his children and they would have a strong claim to the throne. Mary liked the plot and even some of Elizabeth's favourites like the Earl of Leicester were involved at first.