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PTRS 853 Midterm > Question Bank > Flashcards

Flashcards in Question Bank Deck (61):
1

What is the goal of motor control for the novice?

The goal is to find a NEW movement STRATEGY

2

What can be expected during skill acquisition?

- A high degree of attention to task

- Variable performance

- Heavy reliance on FEEDBACK/sensory info to adjust motor response 

3

What is the goal of motor control for an expert?

The goal is skill RETENTION -- want a permanent change in behavior 

4

What is the focus of developing motor control for an expert?

- Increase movement efficiency/consistency (automatic/fast)

- Decreased attention demand

- Decrease reliance on external feedback

- Use feedback only to adjust to unexpected changes

5

How does damage to the nervous system alter the motor control game?

Motor system = weakness, incoordination, hypertone

Sensory = loss of tactile, proprio, visual, vestibular

Altered perception/safety awareness

Memory/cognitive deficits

6

What is Task-Oriented Training

Manipulation of a task and practice of variables that is focused on pt. centered functional goals that allows the pt. to problem solve motor tasks

7

What are the skill acquisition strategies for task-oriented treatment?

- Immediate feedback

- Blocked practice with less variation 

- Motivation 

8

What are the skill retention strategies for task-oriented treatment?

- Summary feedback (allows for pt. to develop internal feedback)

- Random practice

- High variation and challenge

9

T/F: Movement can only be classified as developmental or learned; there is not cross over between classifications.

False: classifications aren't exclusive

 

Typically developmental movement influences learned movement

10

T/F: In order to understand abnormal movements in our patients and to know how to address them, we must first understand normal movement and learning.

True 

 

Side note: abnormal movement in the context of the pt.'s normal

11

What does the brain car about in regards to how movement is completed?

It depends... options include:

- Accuracy of movement/Movement Quality

- Funcitonality/Overall outcome of movement 

- Safety

- Force

- TIming

- Direction

- Energy Conservation 

12

T/F: "What the brain cares about" changes over the lifespan.

True

13

T/F: Central Pattern Generators are a type of closed loop system.

False: open loop

14

T/F: In an open loop system sensory information is disregarded.

False:

Before: need to know intial position

During/After: errors are monitored to modify future movement (cerebellum involved)

15

What have the concerns about motor programs led to?

The concept of generalized motor programs

16

T/F: Changes in performance can be temporary

True: for example, due to fatigue/drugs/etc

17

How is learning measured?

With a retention test or a transfer test

18

What measure of retention is most often relied on in clinic?

Absolute retention or relative difference score when documenting progress

19

What is the most important variable in motor learning?

practice

20

T/F: Repetitive motor activity alone produces functional reorganization of cortical maps.

False: does NOT produce functional reorganization 

21

What type of practice causes remapping of the brian?

When a fully learned skill incurs a new challenge

 

The LEARNING of a skill reorganize the brian

22

What type of rest periods are more beneficial to performance during practice?

longer rest (distributed practice)

23

What is a diagnostic indicator of an UMN problem?

stretch sensitive hypertonicity

24

How do you examine tone?

Passive movement of limbs at varying speeds 

 

(min, mod, severe, modified ashworth, tardieu)

25

T/F: Static hand splints are beneficial in preventing contracture following stroke 

False: 

tend to decrease function and increase pain

 

Side note: better alternative = dynamic hand orthosis

26

T/F: Serial casting is effective at improving ROM in ppl w/CP and TBI

True

 

Disadv: higher risk of skin lesion/infection; difficult technique; limited functioning while one

27

T/F: Ankle mobs increase PROM in those s/p stroke allowing for change in functional ankle use

False: increased PROM 7-10 degrees but not improvement in function

28

What is the goal of task specific training in a weak pt?

Maximize pt-initiated activity to promote motor recovery and plasticity 

29

What are the strength training guidelines?

- Overload principle

- %1 RM 

- Low rep w/rest

30

How do you make high rep exercise demands more engaging for the pt?

- add a speed demand

- decreased the number but demand perfection

- motivation 

31

T/F: You need to assess strength separate from coordination

True: coordination can't be assessed unless the pt. has sufficient strength

32

What side of the brain drives perception?

The non-dominant side of the brain

33

What is the test for motor control called?

Fugl Meyer

34

What does NDT stand for>

neurodevelopmental treatment

35

Apart from task specific training, what needs to be addressed with mobility training?

ROM and Strength

36

T/F: Most functional goals are discrete tasks.

False: continuous tasks

37

If the ability to integrate feedback is limited [due to neuropathology] then the system will be acting in an _______ _______ manner to an extent

open, loop

38

What drives the closed looop system?

Error -- cerebellum compares reality to plan and makes adjustments

 

**Error can be good; body is using error to solve motor problems

39

What is task transfer?

The ability to use a general motor plan and apply it to a similar situation -- transferring the task skill to a new context

40

What can increase stability with transfers in those SCI?

Hooking arms behind objects 

41

What degree of tilt provides actual pressure relief?

65 degrees of tilt

42

What is the most important factor in W/C prescription

Patient's functional level (now and in the future)

43

What level SCI could benefit from Tbar/goal post control

C5/6

44

Why is it important for those with SCI to be able to do WC wheelie

Important for uneven terrain/curbs/etc

45

What should you not do in those with autonomic dysreflexia?

DO NOT lay them flat (allows pressure to more easily effect the brain)

46

Term: initial period of post spinal injury where reflexes remain hyporeflexive progressing to hyperreflexia

Spinal shock

47

T/F: Infertility is uncommon in SCI

False: common due to difficulty with temperature regulation 

48

What does the stim bike promote in those with SCI?

Circulation, prevention of atrophy, osteoporosis prevention 

 

**Osteoporosis is preventing by mm pulling on bone, not just WB alone

**Will not promote mm return

49

T/F: At slower speeds there is increased variability with gait.

True

50

When is steady velocity typically reached?

Within 1-3 steps

51

Which type of turn is more stable?

Step turn

52

What accounts for the largest amount of public falls?

Stair walking

 

Particularly stair descent which accounts for 4/5 falls 

53

What sit to stand strategy is seen more commonly in elderly individuals?

Zero-momentum strategy

54

T/F: Older adults tend to over correct for erros with gait.

True

55

What type of KR delay is importance for integration of movement

Post KR Delay

56

T/F: Providing a distracting activity in the KR-Delay interval has not effect on learning.

Flase, can interfere with learning

57

T/F: Sometimes qualititative feedback can be erroneous feedback.

True: Ex. saying "good job" when the performance was not good

58

Which is better for skill retention, absolute or relative KR frequency

Relative (50% frequency)

59

What is the focus of orthotic perscription?

Knee stability

60

What is the typical degrees of DF used for orthotics?

0 to 5 degrees

61

T/F: There was significant improvement in those pt with FES compared to AFO training

False: no significant difference between groups