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What are two qualities of the natural state?

Perfect freedom, which means following the law of nature (not license to do whatever we want because that would make us = to animals without reason. And equality, naturally man had the right to life, freedom, health and property (and to defend these things).


According to Locke, in the natural state, we have the right to punish for what purposes?

We have the right to punish when someone tries to take away our natural rights of life, freedom, health and property. The person who is “injured” has the right to reparation and everyone has the right to deter or restrain.


What’s the state of war?

Force or declared force where there is no common superior on earth to appeal to for relief, usually begins when someone declares force or uses force without a right


What makes something my property, according to Locke?

Something becomes your property, according to Locke when you perform work upon it


Is there a limit to property, for Locke? Explain.

People can only have property of the natural bounds, and they can only take what they need. And as long as you are not infringing on someone else’s rights you can take natural things to be your property. If you let goods go to waste, you are stealing them away from other people


What’s the end or purpose of the political society, for Locke? How does Locke’s idea of the purpose of the state differ from the classical understanding of the purpose of the state?

Locke thinks that the end and purpose of political society is to preserve property (lives, liberties and estates). In order to preserve this, you must give part of this up to the community. This is different from the classical understanding of the purpose of the state because it is for happiness/ the common good.


Why does Locke think that people consent to give up their state-of-nature liberty? What are the three main things that are missing from the state of nature? How does the political community remedy each of the three main things that are missing from the state of nature?

People give up their state of nature liberty because the state of nature lacks established laws, a known judge to appeal to that is indifferent, and the power to support a sentence or punishment. Also because the first law we make (legislative power) is based off of the consent of the majority and in order to join a community one must accept the consent of the majority. The political system supplies three branches of government legislative, executive and judicial in order to accomplish these three things that the state of nature lacks.


What are the “two principles,” prior to reason, on which Rousseau bases every “natural right”?

Self-preservation, which is doing what will benefit yourself, and pity which is feeling pity when you see someone else suffering.


What are the two kinds of inequality that Rousseau distinguishes?

Natural inequality, which comes from different ages strengths knowledge etc., and moral inequality which is different privileges power and wealth (society is the cause of this)


What is man like in his natural state? By contrast, what is man like in the civil society?

Man in his natural state has no language, is ignorant of virtue and vice (society weakens our compassions), stronger because he has to work for everything, less emotional with less needs, independent and healthier, doesn’t fear death. The civilized man is the opposite of this


What does Rousseau think makes man different from other animals? How is this different from what Aristotle says?

Rousseau says that man is different from other animals because of their freedom, in other words men can deviate from their instinct. This is different because Aristotle says men is different because they can reason, but Rousseau says that reason introduces the ills of society and our passions cause reason to develop


How does Rousseau think that reason is developed?

Reason is developed from our passions according to Rousseau


What is the origin of society, according to Rousseau?

The origin of society is when the first man claimed something to be his property and the others are gulliable enough or stupid enough to believe him


Why does Rousseau think conveniences are the first source of evils?

Because when we become dependent on other things we become physically and mentally weaker because we no longer have to do certain tasks and things on our own


What is the true origin of laws, according to Rousseau?

When there are disputes between the rich and the poor, the rich invent the laws to benefit themselves, this creates an inequality. The wealthy only create the laws to protect their property


What are Rousseau’s “three stages” of inequality?

a. 1- creation of property and law (inequality of rich and poor), 2- development of a leader (inequality of strong and weak), 3- legitimate power to arbitrary power (inequality of master and slave)


What is the purpose of the state and the law according to Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle? How does these ideas differ from Locke and Rousseau?

The purpose of the state is to achieve the common good of the public, and in their case the common good is happiness. This is different than Locke because he says that the purpose is to preserve property, and Rousseau says that the state introduces inequalities, personal greed and personal ambition that would not exist in the state of nature


What are the six kinds of government outlined by Aristotle? Explain

There are good governments for the good of the whole community. The rule by one is monarchy, the rule of the few is an aristocracy, and the rule of many is timocracy. Then there are bad governments which are only good for part of the community. The rule of one is tyranny or dictatorship, the rule by few is oligarchy, and the rule of many is democracy. Monarchy is the best form of government (bc unity in the government and no contrasting opinions) and tyranny is the worst (bc theres no contrasting opinions but its not good for the public)


What is the role of friendship in the political community, according to Aristotle? Explain

Aristotle says that political friendship is when the good willed is happiness which is virtuous activity in accordance with reason, or contemplation of the highest things. You have justice to the degree that you have friendship.


What is the dilemma of the liberal state?

The dilemma of the liberal state is that it is defined as a state that does not set itself up as the ultimate end of its citizens. This creates a dilemma because they can either enforce a moral code whose justification it does not recognize or they can stand by and watch the gradual disintegration of public morality


What is the difference between the breakdown of mores and the breakdown of morality?

Mores: the breakdown of moral behavior
Morality: people don't even know the difference between right and wrong (this is the problem society has)


Gilson presents two possible alternatives for the development of the modern state. What are they, and what are the problems with each?

Totalitarian, which educates in view of itself and teaches what it wants to teach you. This is a problem because it’s based upon what’s good for the state. Liberal, which educates not in view of an end. The problem with this is that although they do not teach that the state is the end, they never say what the end is. And also but excluding religion entirely they are already taking a stance on religion


Does Nietzsche think that knowledge (either knowledge in general, or knowledge of history in particular) is unqualifiedly good? Or does he think that it’s only good up to a certain point? Explain.

He does not think that knowledge is unqualifiedly good. He thinks that because gaining excess knowledge or wisdom that is not necessary for someone is bad and useless. He only thinks knowledge that is actually useful to someone is knowledge worth knowing. People who focus too much on building knowledge never actually act and accomplish great things


Why does Nietzsche think that a “grazing herd” has a big advantage over human beings? How does Nietzsche think that we should try to imitate the “grazing herd”?

He thinks this because the grazing herd does not worry about the past. We as humans focus too much on the past which is a big detriment to our species. The solution to this is that we should limit our knowledge to only what is useful and helpful in the present, like the grazing herd


What does modern “culture” consist of, according to Nietzsche? Explain

The modern culture consists of people caring too much about history and our knowledge today doesn’t actually bring us to act and perform great deeds. In other words, people today have weak personalities, we do not have noble inspirations to do and accomplish great things.


For Nietzsche, what is the problem with modern education and with modern philosophy in particular?

The problem with modern education is that it makes everyone the same and that we focus too much on the past, no one produces or thinks of anything new


Why is Christian culture harmful to the modern world, according to Nietzsche?

Christianity is too focused on death and it takes away peoples abilities to do great things now, doesn't focus enough or at all on the moment


Pieper says that there’s a “tremendous difference in point of view” between the ancient/medieval world and our modern world. What is this difference that Pieper’s focusing on?

The difference between modern age and past ages is that today we live in order to work and in the modern ages they would work in order to live. This is bad in the modern world because work is not actually an end, rather it is just means to an end.


What is the difference between “contemplating” and “observing”—and in the intellectual realm, between intellectus (understanding) and ratio (reasoning)—which Pieper emphasizes?

Observation is reasoning and producing something. Contemplating is just letting the knowledge come to you. Ratio is observation which is a tense activity, reasoning, working out a problem, drawing conclusions etc. Intellectus is contemplation, effortless activity, looking, receiving, passive activity, etc


How does Pieper distinguish “training” from “education”?

Training focuses on teaching one aspect of man, the servile arts (for the sake of something else). Education focuses on teaching and improving the whole man, liberal arts (sought to know for its own sake)