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T/F? Sexual precocity is rare in females

False 30% of females with FD suffer from Albrights syndrome. Sexual precocity is rare in males


T/F? Expanding focal rib lesions are characteristic of FD

True. FD is the commonest cause of such lesions.


T/F? Re enchondroma of bone: Typically calcifies.



Re enchondroma of bone: Are found in Maffucci syndrome

True Maffucci syndrome is enchondroma with soft tissue haemangioma


Fluid fluid level on CT

GCT ABC and solitary bone cyst and telangiectatic osteosarcoma.


Lytic lesion in distall femur, does not reach the articular surface and has a fluid fluid level

ABC GCT abuts the articular surface


? Diagnosis Multiple NOF, cafe au lait spots , mental retardation, hypogonadism and cardiac malformation

Jaffe Campanacci Syndrome


Location of baker's cyst

between semimembraneous and MEDIAL head of gastric

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Discoid meniscus is a normal varian of the ...... meniscus

lateral meniscus and is prone to tear.


Double PCL sign and intact ACL

Bucket handle tear


? diagnosis T2/STIR: celery stalk appearance T1: Drumstick

ACL mucoid degeneration Predisposes to ACL ganglion cyst


5 distinct manifestations of Psoriatic arthropathy:

1. Oligoarthritis 2. Polyarthritis (usually DIP) 3. Symmetric type 4. Arthritis mutilans 5. Spondyloarthropathy


Pencil in cup deformity and telescoping of the joints

Psoriatic arthropathy that


Diagnosis? Wide bones with thick trabecula



The typical radiographic appearance of this lesion is circumferential calcification with a lucent centre and a radiolucent cleft (string sign) that separates the lesion from the cortex of the adjacent bone. 

Usually post traumatic


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myositis ossificans


fluid fluid level due to previous haemorrhage.

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Exess and deficiency of Vit D causes?

hypervitaminosis D is rare and leads to hypercalcaemia:

  • Facilitating calcium deposition in soft tissues, such as the arteries and kidneys.


hypovitaminosis D:

  • paediatric: rickets
  • adult: osteomalacia


This has a typical appearance on plain radiographs with amorphous and multilobulated ("cloud-like") calcification located in a periarticular distribution.

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Tumoral calcinosis


Juxta-articular cystic lesions filled with calcium fluid

Defect in Phosphate met - Ca is normal

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There is focal areas of symptomatic perineural fibrosis around a plantar digital nerve of the foot. The condition is thought to be due to chronic entrapment of the nerve by the intermetatarsal ligament.

Morton Neuroma

The 3rd web-space (between 3rd and 4th metatarsal heads) is the most commonly affected site.

10% bilateral

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MRI findings of morton neuroma

sign associated with this condition

Dumbbell/ovoid-shaped lesion at a similar position to that described on ultrasound:

  • T1: typically low-to-iso signal
  • T2: typically low signal but can sometimes be intermediate in signal
  • T1 C+ (Gd): tends to show intense enhancement

A sonographic Mulder sign may be elicited with the probe.

T1 +Gd FS

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  • bone within a bone appearance
  • Erlenmeyer flask type deformity of the tubular bones
  • sandwich vertebrae: diffuse end plate sclerosis (peripheral bony sclerosis) and lucency of the centre of vertebral body
  • alternating radiolucent metaphyseal bands



Diagnosis? What are the typical findings?

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  1. bone within a bone appearance 
  2. Erlenmeyer flask type deformity of the tubular bones
  3. sandwich vertebrae: diffuse end plate sclerosis (peripheral bony sclerosis) and lucency of the centre of vertebral body
  4. alternating radiolucent metaphyseal bands


PVNS findings

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  • Joint effusion
  • Ca is rare- Ca excludes PVNS
  • Low signal on all MR seq and BLOOMING


The usual mechanism of this injury is falling onto outstretched hand in ulnar deviation


Direct blow to dorsum of the hand

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Triquetrel fracture.


Scaphoid Fracture is more common in FOOSH and radial deviation

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35F. Pain in the hands and wrists. History of Rheumatic fever and SLE

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Jaccoud arthropathy

  • non-erosive arthropathy 
  • ulnar deviation of the 2-5th fingers with metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint subluxation.


  • post-rheumatic fever. 
  • in association with 
    • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 
    • psoriatic arthritis,
    • inflammatory bowel disease and
    • malignancy.

It is thought to be related to ligamentous laxity.



What features would be suggestive of Fe deficiency anaemia

  1. Narrowing of deploe
  2. Hair on end skull
  3. osteopenia of zygoma
  4. osteosclerosis of sphenoid
  5. biconcave vertebra

Hair on end skull

widening of diploe 

OP in long bones



45F foot pain and difficulty walking  and swelling along the medial malleolus and arch of foot.

What tendon is most likely to have been injured?

Tibialis posterior

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Assualt to face: unable to open his mouth. Severe bruising and flattening of the contour of his cheek. Diagnosis?

  1. Zygomatic arch fracture
  2. Le Fort I
  3. Le Fort III
  4. Coronoid process 
  5. Orbital blowout fracture

Zygomatic arch fracture


X ray shows loss of lamina dura of majority of teeth. What is the possible cause?

  1. osteopetrois
  2. hypoPTH
  3. Scleroderma
  4. Sickle cell
  5. Myeloma


Other causes include:

  • Cushing
  • pagets
  • hyperPTH
  • OP
  • osteomalacia
  • leukaemia
  • mets
  • LCH


Which of the following lesions would appear as HOT on bone scan?

  1. Osteopoikilosis
  2. FCD
  3. Acute fracture
  4. FD
  5. Haemangioma

Fibrous dysplasia


Other causes:

  • Pagets
  • Brown tumour
  • ABC
  • Chondroblastoma
  • Ostoid osteoma