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Where would you find Biohazards

Laboratories Veterinary and pharmaceutical research Medical schools Commercial premises Food research establishments Hospitals


What would you do if you suspect any biological hazard?

IC assertions whether there is a biohazard involved, checks MDT for premises information. “BIOHAZARD SUSPECTED” message to control. BA and GTS Restrict access Minimum personnel Unprotected personnel and appliances to be upwind of the incident. Consult HMEPO Avoid using large quantities of water


Who would provide additional help or support at an incident

HMEPO FRU Scientific advice service CBRN team


Where would you typically find asbestos

Ceiling and floor tiles Insulation for boilers Spray insulation Brake linings Gaskets in heating installations Cement asbestos in sheeting


If asbestos is suspected, what level of protection is required?

The IC will need to carry out a risk assessment to determine the level of PPE. In non-fire situations, gas tight suits should be considered.


How does asbestos affect the body?

Chronic, Lung disease


What is the minimum distance between the hot zone and the cold/decontamination zone?



What information can be found on the EAC?

The EAC code (Emergency Action Code) notifies emergency services of the initial actions to be taken at an incident involving hazardous materials. It tells you 1-what extinguishing media to use 2-what level of PPE 3-whether to contain or dilute the run off 4-whether it is a public safety hazard or not.


What are the three steps of approaching CBRN (terrorist threat)

123PLUS Step 1-single casualty- approach using normal operating procedures Step 2- two casualties -Approach with caution, consider all possibilities, do not discount anything, report arrival and update to Brigade Control. Step 3- three casualties - DO NOT go to the scene. Go to predetermined RVP, await further instructions


What are the signs of a CBRN incident?

Dead or distressed people or animals Multiple examples of skin or breathing irritation Presence of hazardous materials Unexplained smells or taste Unexplained oily droplets on water Withered plantlife on exterior of building or incident.


What are the three steps for approaching a CBRN incident?

Response - first 3 hours Recovery - following 3 hours Restoration - on conclusion of the incident


What does the pneumonic METHANE stand for?

It’s to aide correct messages to control. Major incident? (Standby or declare) Exact location Type of incident Hazards Access and egress Number of casualties Emergency services.


What are the LFB generic key roles of a CBRN event

To save life To prevent/fight fire Manage hazardous materials and protect the environment Ensure the health and safety of all first responders Safety management within the inner cordon


What unit is radiation measured in?

Sieverts (Sv) HOWEVER, this unit is too large to accurately measure radiation for LFB practical use. We measure in millisieverts and microsieverts


What is the emergency exposure limit in the space of 12 months

20 mSv (millisieverts) per year with an additional dose of 13 mSv (millisieverts) for women


What is the time distance shielding?

These are methods of controlling the amount of exposure to radiation. MINIMUM TIME- MAXIMUM DISTANCE - MAXIMUM SHIELDING -The less time exposed to a radioactive source, the smaller the dose will be. -The intensity of radiation reduces the further away you are from the source. -Shielding is the prevention of penetration by using barriers (such as lead, steel and concrete).


Where is radiation found?

Hospitals Construction sites Research and education establishments Laboratories Naval vessels Marked vehicles


What can indicate the first signs of radiation?

Prior knowledge or intelligence Radioactivity warning placard Caller stating that radioactive materials are present EPD (electronic personal dosemeter) actuating Survey meter showing a dose rate above background Terrorist or malicious attacks


Tue or false. If radiation is suspected, use a jet.

False, spray or fog


Describe the EPD alarm sound

Initial dose alarm: intermittent, double fast tone Dose constraint alarm: continuous slow dual tone for 2minutes, followed by a beep every 30 seconds Exceptional dose alarm: continuous single tone for 10 minutes, followed by a beep every 30 seconds


When would you wet decontaminate?

When a firefighter/material/casualty has been subjected to caustic or biohazards or radiological hazards/material


When decontaminating, what would HMEPO need to consider?

The type and scale of the incident Weather and wind direction Drainage Slope of ground Ease of access for oncoming vehicles


How can exposure to HAZMATs occur?

Inhalation Ingestion Chemical or heat burns Absorption Injection


What are the different types of radiation

Alpha Beta Gamma X-ray


What colour is an acetylene cylinder?



What are the signs of cylinder damage?

Plastic labels or rings melted Blackened or blistered paintwork Supply hose pipes damaged


At what temperature does a steel cylinder lose its tensile strength?

300 degrees


At what temperature does an aluminium cylinder lose its tensile strength?

200-250 degrees


What is the distance that a steel cylinder may be thrown upon failure?



What is the most reliable way of identifying an acetylene cylinder?

The paper label attached to the collar of the cylinder. It will be painted maroon. It MAY have a reflective strip.


Where might the location of premises storing cylinders be found?

On the ORD, available on the MDT


When there are indications of cylinders involved in an incident, where should appliances park?

Where it would be protected should a cylinder fail


What type of cylinder should be allowed to burn off before extinguishing the fire?

Composite cylinders. This prevents a build up of unburnt gasses.


What cylinder information should be gathered?

The type It’s contents Location Amount of cylinders involved


Acetylene cylinders which have been heated to 300 degrees and have not failed are at risk of ..........

Internal combustion


How long must a acetylene cylinder be cooled for?

1 hour minimum


How many times should the CAP be repeated in an hour?

4 times


What is the maximum voltage that Electrical gloves are resistant to?

3300 volts


At what voltage is low voltage classed?

Between 50 and 1000v AC


At what voltage is high voltage classed?

Greater than 1000v AC


What is the likely voltage supplied to domestic properties?



What is the likely voltage supplied to commercial properties?



What hazards must be considered when dealing with fires involving solar panels?

Electrocution Hazardous chemicals The weight of solar panels Falling objects


List the pollution control heirarchy

Contain: At source Close to the source On the surface In the drainage system On or in the water course


What is a controlled burn?

The action of not applying firefighting media, to prevent water pollution and reduce air pollution.