Flashcards in Quick checks and other stuff NO BINGO! Deck (40)
Quick check: slow waves
(B) have different basic electrical rhythm in each area of the GI tract
Quick check : regarding protein digestion and absorption:
AA are absorbed like glucose via sodium cotransport
What is a cause of gastritis?
Pernicious anemia from a deficiency of B12
Also h. Pylori
What is a treatment for h. Pylori?
What do NSAIDS inhibit in regards to gastritis and ulcerative diseases?
Prostaglandins, so you don't get a protective layer
What is chronic gastritis?
when parietal cells are destroyed
What is achlorhydria
lack of stomach acid secretions
what age is chronic mild gastritis most common?
over age 50
Case scenario:Alcohol abuse causing destruction. Resulting clinical symptom?
patient has selective destruction of gastric gland (hint, alcohol breaks down mucosal barrier)
All of the following are true about saliva except:
C) Controlled solely by the vagus nerve.
7. Secretion of the pancreas include all of the following except:
What does the enteric part of GI nervous system control?
enteric nervous system completely controls motility and secretion of the GI does so by localized stimulate, if you want a strong effect you need external effect from prevertebral reflexes or from the CNS (or both)
What is the Extrinsic Nervous System
Parasympathetic (Excitatory: increases motility and secretions)c.
Sympathetic (Inhibitory: decreases motility and secretions)
preganglionics via Ach from (extrinsic NS para)
brainstem (vagus stimulates esophagus, stomach, pancreas, & proximal ½ colon)
sacral cord (s2-4 to pelvic nerves stimulate distal ½ color to anus)
Postganglionic cell bodies in enteric plexi (extrinsic NS para)
PNS stimulation increases activity of whole GI tract via enteric plexi.
release Ach or peptides like Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or substance P
Nervous control of GI system
enteric NS can control secretion and motility - presence of food in gut,
needs outside help if load is need for greater contraction, prevertebral or outside nervous system or both, if
there is a need (prevertebral or central nervous system or both)
Regulation of gastric emptying
#1 = enterogastric reflex
Function of micelles
Bile, amphipathic molecule, increases surface area to let fat be absorbed, create micelles and ferry fat
across the epithelial membrane
Malabsorption: molecular cause
Crone's or gluten/honey story. Vitamin D and Crone's, NOD 2 defected prevents >99% is absorbed as a
monomer so increased celiac risk, less than 1% are IgE that causes inflammatory response,
honey can cure allergies by converting IgE to IgG or can cause inflammatory response that kills GI bacteria
Meissner's plexus (secretions) - controls GI movement and secretion
Obesity increases the risk for cancer because…
Know that adiponectin is decreased in obese people therefore more angiogenesis
- also sex hormones physically increase in number but sex hormone binding globulin is inhibited by excess fat.
Parameters of gastric or pancreatic enzymes
Pepsinogen and activation
HCL is needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin
pepsinogen secreted by chief cells.
what stimulates pepsinogen?
vagus nerve and presence of [H+]
What secretes IF?
parietal cells with HCl
WHat do brunners glands in duodenum make mucus in response to?
actile/ irritating stimuli on duodenal mucosa
Goblet cells: secrete...
mucus which lubricate and protect
What are causes of swallowing disorders?
Polio infection, acalasia, encephalopathy
Functions of the large intestine
Absorbs sodium BUT DOES NOT EXCRETE IT, more tight junctions to decrease Na+ release, Water
absorption, some nutrients but not a lot of nutrient absorption. Vitamin absorption, Large intestine is not sterile
compared to Small intestine
Respiratory exchange ratio
Digest carbs, then protein then fat then back to protein
1 if normal, 0.7 if diabetic