Quick checks and other stuff NO BINGO! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quick checks and other stuff NO BINGO! Deck (40)
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Quick check: slow waves

(B) have different basic electrical rhythm in each area of the GI tract


Quick check : regarding protein digestion and absorption:

AA are absorbed like glucose via sodium cotransport


What is a cause of gastritis?

Pernicious anemia from a deficiency of B12
Also h. Pylori


What is a treatment for h. Pylori?



What do NSAIDS inhibit in regards to gastritis and ulcerative diseases?

Prostaglandins, so you don't get a protective layer


What is chronic gastritis?

when parietal cells are destroyed


What is achlorhydria

lack of stomach acid secretions


what age is chronic mild gastritis most common?

over age 50


Case scenario:Alcohol abuse causing destruction. Resulting clinical symptom?

patient has selective destruction of gastric gland (hint, alcohol breaks down mucosal barrier)


All of the following are true about saliva except:

C) Controlled solely by the vagus nerve.


7. Secretion of the pancreas include all of the following except:

(A) Ptyalin


What does the enteric part of GI nervous system control?

enteric nervous system completely controls motility and secretion of the GI does so by localized stimulate, if you want a strong effect you need external effect from prevertebral reflexes or from the CNS (or both)


What is the Extrinsic Nervous System

Parasympathetic (Excitatory: increases motility and secretions)c.
Sympathetic (Inhibitory: decreases motility and secretions)


preganglionics via Ach from (extrinsic NS para)

brainstem (vagus stimulates esophagus, stomach, pancreas, & proximal ½ colon)
sacral cord (s2-4 to pelvic nerves stimulate distal ½ color to anus)


Postganglionic cell bodies in enteric plexi (extrinsic NS para)

PNS stimulation increases activity of whole GI tract via enteric plexi.
release Ach or peptides like Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or substance P


Nervous control of GI system

enteric NS can control secretion and motility - presence of food in gut,
needs outside help if load is need for greater contraction, prevertebral or outside nervous system or both, if
there is a need (prevertebral or central nervous system or both)


Regulation of gastric emptying

#1 = enterogastric reflex


Function of micelles

Bile, amphipathic molecule, increases surface area to let fat be absorbed, create micelles and ferry fat
across the epithelial membrane


Malabsorption: molecular cause

Crone's or gluten/honey story. Vitamin D and Crone's, NOD 2 defected prevents >99% is absorbed as a
monomer so increased celiac risk, less than 1% are IgE that causes inflammatory response,
honey can cure allergies by converting IgE to IgG or can cause inflammatory response that kills GI bacteria


Enteric plexus

Meissner's plexus (secretions) - controls GI movement and secretion


Obesity increases the risk for cancer because…

Know that adiponectin is decreased in obese people therefore more angiogenesis
- also sex hormones physically increase in number but sex hormone binding globulin is inhibited by excess fat.


Parameters of gastric or pancreatic enzymes

Pepsinogen and activation
HCL is needed to convert pepsinogen to pepsin
pepsinogen secreted by chief cells.


what stimulates pepsinogen?

vagus nerve and presence of [H+]


What secretes IF?

parietal cells with HCl


WHat do brunners glands in duodenum make mucus in response to?

actile/ irritating stimuli on duodenal mucosa
vagal stimulation


Goblet cells: secrete...

mucus which lubricate and protect


What are causes of swallowing disorders?

Polio infection, acalasia, encephalopathy


Functions of the large intestine

Absorbs sodium BUT DOES NOT EXCRETE IT, more tight junctions to decrease Na+ release, Water
absorption, some nutrients but not a lot of nutrient absorption. Vitamin absorption, Large intestine is not sterile
compared to Small intestine


Respiratory exchange ratio

Normal physiology
Digest carbs, then protein then fat then back to protein
1 if normal, 0.7 if diabetic


Regulation of hypothalamic temperature set point

2/3 cold sensitive neurons in the skin to have an active response to
prevent hypothermia. And the core and hypothalamus contain more heat sensitive neurons