Quinolones, Folic acid antagonists and Urinary antiseptics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quinolones, Folic acid antagonists and Urinary antiseptics Deck (31)
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1

Fluoroquinolone targets _________ in Gram negatives and _________ in Gram positive bacteria

DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV

2

Name 3 fluoroquinolones

ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin

3

Fluroquinolones should be administered at least _________ hours before consumption of dairy products or substances that contain divalent cations

2 hours

(Best on empty stomach)

4

Name the two respiratory quinolones

Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin

5

Name at least 3 adverse effects associated with the use of fluroquinolones.

1. Phototoxicity
2. Tendinitis or tendon rupture
3. Prolong QT interval
4. Peripheral Neuropathy
5. GI distress
6. Arthropathy

6

Which antibiotics are known to cause phototoxicity?

Tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones

7

Fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in _________

1. Children < 18 years old
2. Pregnant women

8

Can fluoroquinolones be used when breastfeeding?

No

9

Name 3 folate synthesis inhibitors

Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole

10

Folic acid is vitamin B9 that is needed in humans to produce healthy ___________

red blood cells

11

Which enzyme does sulfonamide inhibit?

Dihydropteroate synthase

12

Sulfonamides are only effective in bacteria that synthesize their own __________?

folic acid

13

Sulfonamides can cause nephrotoxicity as a result of __________?

crystalluria

14

G6PD deficient patients using sulfonamides can suffer from __________

hemolytic anemia

15

Usage of sulfonamides in last trimester can cause __________ in newborns

kernicterus

16

Which enzyme does trimethoprim inhibit?

Dihydrofolate reductase

17

Trimethoprim can cause __________ deficiency in humans

folic acid

18

Folic acid deficiency caused by trimethoprim can be managed by giving the patients _____________ .

Folinic acid

19

Cotrimoxazole is a combination of which 2 antibiotics, and in what ratio?

Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, 1:5 respectively

20

Name an antibiotic which is used as the choice of drug for the management of pneumocystis pneumonia

Cotrimoxazole

21

Cotrimoxazole is contraindicated in which trimester(s) of pregnancy?

First and last trimester

22

Name at LEAST two indications for cotrimoxazole

1. Uncomplicated UTI
2. Pneumocystis pneumonia

23

Name at LEAST 3 adverse effects related to the use of cotrimoxazole

1. Glossitis
2. Rash
3. Photosensitivity
4. Blood disorders including megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia

24

What is nitrofurantoin’s mechanism of action?

It is converted by the bacteria to a highly active intermediate, which disrupts the synthesis of DNA, RNA and metabolic processes.

25

Nitrofurantoin is effective in treatment of _________ .

lower UTI

26

Nitrofurantoin can cause urine colour to turn _________ .

brown

27

How is nitrofurantoin cleared?

Renal clearance

28

G6PD deficient patients using nitrofurantoin are susceptible to ___________ .

Hematologic disturbances such as hemolytic anemia, leukopenia

29

What is G6PD, and why is it important in red blood cells?

The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme is the central factor of the antioxidant defense system in red blood cells, which helps maintain high levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), to protect the RBC from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species.

30

Name 3 groups of patients in whom nitrofurantoin may be contraindicated.

1. Patients with impaired renal function
2. Pregnant women (at term > 37 weeks)
3. Infants <1 mth of age