Flashcards in Quinolones, Folic acid antagonists and Urinary antiseptics Deck (31)
Fluoroquinolone targets _________ in Gram negatives and _________ in Gram positive bacteria
DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV
Name 3 fluoroquinolones
ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin
Fluroquinolones should be administered at least _________ hours before consumption of dairy products or substances that contain divalent cations
(Best on empty stomach)
Name the two respiratory quinolones
Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin
Name at least 3 adverse effects associated with the use of fluroquinolones.
2. Tendinitis or tendon rupture
3. Prolong QT interval
4. Peripheral Neuropathy
5. GI distress
Which antibiotics are known to cause phototoxicity?
Fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in _________
1. Children < 18 years old
2. Pregnant women
Can fluoroquinolones be used when breastfeeding?
Name 3 folate synthesis inhibitors
Sulfonamides, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole
Folic acid is vitamin B9 that is needed in humans to produce healthy ___________
red blood cells
Which enzyme does sulfonamide inhibit?
Sulfonamides are only effective in bacteria that synthesize their own __________?
Sulfonamides can cause nephrotoxicity as a result of __________?
G6PD deficient patients using sulfonamides can suffer from __________
Usage of sulfonamides in last trimester can cause __________ in newborns
Which enzyme does trimethoprim inhibit?
Trimethoprim can cause __________ deficiency in humans
Folic acid deficiency caused by trimethoprim can be managed by giving the patients _____________ .
Cotrimoxazole is a combination of which 2 antibiotics, and in what ratio?
Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, 1:5 respectively
Name an antibiotic which is used as the choice of drug for the management of pneumocystis pneumonia
Cotrimoxazole is contraindicated in which trimester(s) of pregnancy?
First and last trimester
Name at LEAST two indications for cotrimoxazole
1. Uncomplicated UTI
2. Pneumocystis pneumonia
Name at LEAST 3 adverse effects related to the use of cotrimoxazole
4. Blood disorders including megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia
What is nitrofurantoin’s mechanism of action?
It is converted by the bacteria to a highly active intermediate, which disrupts the synthesis of DNA, RNA and metabolic processes.
Nitrofurantoin is effective in treatment of _________ .
Nitrofurantoin can cause urine colour to turn _________ .
How is nitrofurantoin cleared?
G6PD deficient patients using nitrofurantoin are susceptible to ___________ .
Hematologic disturbances such as hemolytic anemia, leukopenia
What is G6PD, and why is it important in red blood cells?
The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme is the central factor of the antioxidant defense system in red blood cells, which helps maintain high levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), to protect the RBC from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species.