Introduction to Dental Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

PA2131_AI > Introduction to Dental Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Dental Pharmacology Deck (13)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is pharmacology?

The study of the sources, uses, effect, and mechanisms of action of drugs.

2

What is pharmacodynamics?

What drugs do to the body.

3

What is pharmacokinetics?

What the body does to the drugs.

4

What is a drug?

A drug is a chemical which is utilized for the diagnosis, prevention, cure or amelioration of an unwanted health condition in humans.

All drugs are chemicals; BUT not all chemicals are drugs.

All drugs are poisons; BUT not all poisons are drugs.

5

What is toxicology?

Toxicology is a branch of pharmacology that deals with undesirable/unwanted effects of chemicals on living systems.

6

Define therapeutic index.

Therapeutic Index (TI) = TD50/ED50

  • ED50: Dose produces specified “therapeutic effect” in 50% of animals
     
  • TD50: Dose produces toxic/adverse effect in 50% of animals

7

How does therapeutic index relate to drug margin of safety?

The higher the TI, the safer the drug, the wider the Margin of Safety

  • Higher TI drugs: e.g. Ranitidine, omeprazole, diazepam - higher safety
     
  • Lower TI drugs: e.g. theophylline, warfarin - lower safety

8

List at least 5 factors that can influence the severity of drug adverse effects

Severity of adverse drug effects can be different by gender, genetic make-up, age, pregnancy, underlying pathology, immunity, drug-drug interaction.

9

Name at least TWO factors on each side of the therapeutic balance of risk-benefit ratio for patients.

10

List FIVE steps in rationale prescribing.

  1. Making a diagnosis
  2. Consideration of treatment options
  3. Prescription
  4. Patient counselling
  5. Monitoring

11

List at least THREE patient factors and THREE drug factors that should be considered when making a prescription.

Patient factors

  1. Age and gender
  2. Interacting diseases
  3. Interacting drugs
  4. Genetics

Drug factors

  1. Pharmacokinetics
  2. Pharmacodynamics
  3. Evidence-base
  4. Cost-effectiveness

12

Why do dentists need to know pharmacology?

Because knowledge of pharmacology saves lives. 

13

What are the three regulatory categories regulating sale of medicines?

1.Over-the-Counter Medicines (General Sales)  

  • Examples: antacids, paracetamol, aspirin

2.Pharmacy-Only-Medicines

  • Examples: antihistamines, cough, antidiarrhoeals

3.Prescription-Only-Medicines (by registered Medical Practitioners)

  • Examples: antibiotics, antihypertensive, anti-diabetics…