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Flashcards in QUIZ #1 Deck (16):
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1. What is QA, QC and the levels

a. QA = _____ _____ is an all-encompassing management program used to ensure excellence in _____ _____ through the systematic collection and evaluation of data. Primary objective of a QA program is the enhancement of patient care

b. QC = _____ _____, is a part of the QA program that deals with techniques used in _____ and _____ the technical element of the systems that affect the quality of the image. A quality control program includes the following three levels of testing:

i. Nonintrusive and simple: noninvasive and simple evaluations can be performed by any technologist and include tests such as the wire mesh test for screen contact and the spinning top test for timer accuracy
ii. Noninvasive and complex: noninvasive and complex evaluations should be performed by a technologist who has been specifically trained in quality control procedures
iii. Invasive and complex: invasive and complex evaluations involve some disassembly of the equipment and are normally performed by engineers or physicists

1. What is QA, QC and the levels

a. QA = quality assurance is an all-encompassing management program used to ensure excellence in health care through the systematic collection and evaluation of data. Primary objective of a QA program is the enhancement of patient care

b. QC = quality control, is a part of the QA program that deals with techniques used in monitoring and maintaining the technical element of the systems that affect the quality of the image. A quality control program includes the following three levels of testing:

i. Nonintrusive and simple: noninvasive and simple evaluations can be performed by any technologist and include tests such as the wire mesh test for screen contact and the spinning top test for timer accuracy
ii. Noninvasive and complex: noninvasive and complex evaluations should be performed by a technologist who has been specifically trained in quality control procedures
iii. Invasive and complex: invasive and complex evaluations involve some disassembly of the equipment and are normally performed by engineers or physicists

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2. What is TQI/CQI- who came up with the concept

a. TQI = _____ _____ _____

b. CQI = The Joint Commission (TJC) came up with _____ _____ _____, which is defined as a structured organizations; process for involving personnel in planning and executing a continuous flow of improvements to provide quality _____ _____ that meets or exceeds expectations, to replace the order of QA/QC philosophy into their program of accreditation of healthcare organizations

2. What is TQI/CQI- who came up with the concept

a. TQI = total quality improvement

b. CQI = The Joint Commission (TJC) came up with continuous quality improvement, which is defined as a structured organizations; process for involving personnel in planning and executing a continuous flow of improvements to provide quality health care that meets or exceeds expectations, to replace the order of QA/QC philosophy into their program of accreditation of healthcare organizations

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3. Who are our customers- internal and external

a. _____ customers = generally, these are individuals or groups from within the organization such as referring physicians, hospital employees, departments, and department employees

b. _____ customers = these are individuals or groups from outside the organization, such as patients and their families, third-party players, and the community

3. Who are our customers- internal and external

a. Internal customers = generally, these are individuals or groups from within the organization such as referring physicians, hospital employees, departments, and department employees

b. External customers = these are individuals or groups from outside the organization, such as patients and their families, third-party players, and the community

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a. _____ = is a group process used to develop a large collection of ideas without regard to their merit or validity. For example, a department meeting of all staff could be used to solicit ideas or suggestions for a particular topic

b. _____ = a small group that focuses on a particular problem and then hopefully derives a solution

c. _____ = a group of individuals who implement the solutions that were derived by the focus group. Ideally, quality improvement teams should have 6 or 7 members who are key customers or suppliers or both

d. _____ = this type of group dynamic tool is normally composed of supervisors and workers who are from the dame department or who may have the same function in a similar department

a. Brainstorming = is a group process used to develop a large collection of ideas without regard to their merit or validity. For example, a department meeting of all staff could be used to solicit ideas or suggestions for a particular topic

b. Focus group = a small group that focuses on a particular problem and then hopefully derives a solution

c. QI team = a group of individuals who implement the solutions that were derived by the focus group. Ideally, quality improvement teams should have 6 or 7 members who are key customers or suppliers or both

d. Quality circles = this type of group dynamic tool is normally composed of supervisors and workers who are from the dame department or who may have the same function in a similar department

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5. Sentinel event and aggregate data

a. _____ = an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or risk thereof

b. _____ = quantifies a process or outcome related to many cases

5. Sentinel event and aggregate data

a. Sentinel event = an unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or risk thereof

b. Aggregate data indicator = quantifies a process or outcome related to many cases

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6. Benchmarking

a. Benchmarking involves comparing one organization's _____ standards with that of another; however, it focuses on the other organization's key processes that achieve performance rather than the numbers and statistical data obtained in an aggregate external reference database

6. Benchmarking

a. Benchmarking involves comparing one organization's performance standards with that of another; however, it focuses on the other organization's key processes that achieve performance rather than the numbers and statistical data obtained in an aggregate external reference database

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a. _____ = comprises the entire set or group of items being measured. Identifying the population to be measured is one of the first steps in performing a statistical analysis

b. _____ = the number of items actually measured from a population.

c. _____ = variables that are observed in statistical studies to change in response to independent variables and are not controlled during the study.

d. _____ = variables that are those that are deliberately manipulated to invoke a change on the dependent variables

a. Population = comprises the entire set or group of items being measured. Identifying the population to be measured is one of the first steps in performing a statistical analysis

b. Sample = the number of items actually measured from a population.

c. Dependent variable = variables that are observed in statistical studies to change in response to independent variables and are not controlled during the study.

d. Independent variable = variables that are those that are deliberately manipulated to invoke a change on the dependent variables

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1. _____ = the central position of a sample frequency

2. _____ = the calculated average set of observations that can be denoted by either μ, X, or M. The mean provides the greatest reliability of the three measures of central tendency.

3. _____ = is a point on a scale of measurement above which are exactly one half of the values and low which are the other half

4. _____ = one value that occurs with the greatest frequency in the dataset. For example, if the value 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, and 5 are observed, the mode- 4. The mode provides information about the most typical occurrence, but this 1s usually just a rough estimate of central value .

1. Central tendency = the central position of a sample frequency

2. Mean = the calculated average set of observations that can be denoted by either μ, X, or M. The mean provides the greatest reliability of the three measures of central tendency.

3. Median = is a point on a scale of measurement above which are exactly one half of the values and low which are the other half

4. Mode = one value that occurs with the greatest frequency in the dataset. For example, if the value 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, and 5 are observed, the mode- 4. The mode provides information about the most typical occurrence, but this 1s usually just a rough estimate of central value .

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1. _____ = refers to the consistency of repeated measurements of the same thing or the reproducibility of a result and is sometimes known as precision

2. _____ = refers to the ability to measure what is purported to be measured and is sometimes referred to as validity.

3. _____ = refers to anything that would cause a process to deviate from acceptable standards (or the norm).

4. _____ = sometimes referred to as accuracy. In survey measurement, there are three main types of validity of concern: construct validity, content validity, and criterion validity. Construct validity is the extent to which a measure would agree with other survey instruments that have been used to measure the same parameters and have a proven accuracy. Content validity is the extent to which a survey will cover all of the content area. Criterion validity compares the results obtained in a survey to an established criterion measure.

1. Reliability = refers to the consistency of repeated measurements of the same thing or the reproducibility of a result and is sometimes known as precision

2. Accuracy = refers to the ability to measure what is purported to be measured and is sometimes referred to as validity.

3. Variation = refers to anything that would cause a process to deviate from acceptable standards (or the norm).

4. Validity = sometimes referred to as accuracy. In survey measurement, there are three main types of validity of concern: construct validity, content validity, and criterion validity. Construct validity is the extent to which a measure would agree with other survey instruments that have been used to measure the same parameters and have a proven accuracy. Content validity is the extent to which a survey will cover all of the content area. Criterion validity compares the results obtained in a survey to an established criterion measure.

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1. _____ = the range of variation or dispersion of a set of values surrounding the mean, or the spread or distribution of a data set

2. _____ = the square of the standard deviation in Poisson statistics (discussed below) and is used to determine if the separate means of several different groups differ significantly from each other (e.g., between male and female patients, different age groups).
a. Poisson Distribution = A Poisson distribution, named after French mathematician Simeon Poisson, is a discrete probability distribution that is used to determine whether events occur randomly or not (such as the number of particles emitted by a radioactive source in a given period of time).
b. Gaussian Distribution = A Gaussian distribution, named after German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, is also known as a normal distribution and creates a bell shaped curve that is continuous with both tails extending to infinity (Fig. 2-1)

1. Standard deviation = the range of variation or dispersion of a set of values surrounding the mean, or the spread or distribution of a data set

2. Variance = the square of the standard deviation in Poisson statistics (discussed below) and is used to determine if the separate means of several different groups differ significantly from each other (e.g., between male and female patients, different age groups).
a. Poisson Distribution = A Poisson distribution, named after French mathematician Simeon Poisson, is a discrete probability distribution that is used to determine whether events occur randomly or not (such as the number of particles emitted by a radioactive source in a given period of time).
b. Gaussian Distribution = A Gaussian distribution, named after German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, is also known as a normal distribution and creates a bell shaped curve that is continuous with both tails extending to infinity (Fig. 2-1)

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4. The joint commissions 10 step process for QI

1. Assign _____
2. Delineate the _____ of care and service
3. Identify _____ _____ of care and service
4. Identify _____ or _____ measures
5. Establish a means to _____ evaluation
6. Collect and organize _____
7. _____ evaluation
8. Take _____ to improve care and service
9. _____ effectiveness of actions and maintain improvements
10. _____ results to affected individuals and groups

4. The joint commissions 10 step process for QI

1. Assign responsibility
2. Delineate the scope of care and service
3. Identify important aspects of care and service
4. Identify indicators or performance measures
5. Establish a means to trigger evaluation
6. Collect and organize data
7. Initiate evaluation
8. Take actions to improve care and service
9. Assess effectiveness of actions and maintain improvements
10. Communicate results to affected individuals and groups

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5. Be able to describe and pick out the following- flowchart/cause and effect/scatter plot/trend chart/ control chart/histogram

5. Be able to describe and pick out the following- flowchart/cause and effect/scatter plot/trend chart/ control chart/histogram

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6. What is risk management

1. The ability to identify potential _____ to patients, employees, and visitors at the healthcare institution and establish processes that would minimize these risks is extremely important to healthcare organizations.

6. What is risk management

1. The ability to identify potential risks to patients, employees, and visitors at the healthcare institution and establish processes that would minimize these risks is extremely important to healthcare organizations.

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7. Know the radiation safety material listed.

1. This is to ensure that patient exposure is kept as low as reasonably achievable (_____) and that department personnel, medical staff, and members of the general public are protected from overexposure to ionizing radiation.

7. Know the radiation safety material listed.

1. This is to ensure that patient exposure is kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and that department personnel, medical staff, and members of the general public are protected from overexposure to ionizing radiation.

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8. Legislation, basically what it made us do, year for MQSA & MQSRA

1. Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) _____ Enforceable guidelines for Technologist, Physicist, Physician and equipment.

2. MQRSA _____ added requirements to MQSA

8. Legislation, basically what it made us do, year for MQSA & MQSRA

1. Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) 1994 Enforceable guidelines for Technologist, Physicist, Physician and equipment.

2. MQRSA 1999 added requirements to MQSA

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9. What is the 80/20 principle

1. 80% of the _____ are the result of 20% of the _____

9. What is the 80/20 principle

1. 80% of the problems are the result of 20% of the causes