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Flashcards in EXAM #1 Deck (63):
1

1. Pulses per cycle and per second for each type of generator

a. Single ½ rectified = __ pulse/cycle, __ pulse/sec

b. Single full rectified = __ pulse/cycle, __ pulse/sec

c. 3-phase 6-pulse = __ pulse/cycle, __ pulse/sec

d. 3-phase 12-pulse = __ pulse/cycle, __ pulse/sec

e. High frequency = __ pulse/cycle + __ pulse/sec

1. Pulses per cycle and per second for each type of generator

a. Single ½ rectified = 1 pulse/cycle, 60 pulse/sec

b. Single full rectified = 2 pulse/cycle, 120 pulse/sec

c. 3-phase 6-pulse = 6 pulse/cycle, 360 pulse/sec

d. 3-phase 12-pulse = 12 pulse/cycle, 720 pulse/sec

e. High frequency = constant pulse/cycle + constant pulse/sec

2

2. Visual inspection- how often what is done

a. Inspected _____

2. Visual inspection- how often what is done

a. Inspected annually

3

3. Reproducibility of exposure

a. ± __% variance

b. Inspected _____ or _____

3. Reproducibility of exposure

a. ± 5% variance

b. Inspected annually or after repair

4

4. Radiation output

a. All equipment should produce a specific mR/mAs, and all rooms within a HCO should be similar. Values obtained at _____.

b. Enter meter to tube, at 40" SID, with lead apron underneath, make three exposures with the same technique, reading meter between each exposure. Record data.

c. Calculate percent mR/mAs variation, should be +/- __% (JCAHO requires posting of values)

4. Radiation output

a. All equipment should produce a specific mR/mAs, and all rooms within a HCO should be similar. Values obtained at installation.

b. Enter meter to tube, at 40" SID, with lead apron underneath, make three exposures with the same technique, reading meter between each exposure. Record data.

c. Calculate percent mR/mAs variation, should be +/- 10% (JCAHO requires posting of values)

5

5. kVp accuracy

a. ± __% variance

b. Inspected _____

i. Wisconsin test cassette or Ardan/cook cassettes can be used

5. kVp accuracy

a. ± 5% variance

b. Inspected annually

i. Wisconsin test cassette or Ardan/cook cassettes can be used

6

6. Timer accuracy

a. ± __% for >10ms

b. ± __% for <10ms

c. Inspected _____ or _____

6. Timer accuracy

a. ± 5% for >10ms

b. ± 20% for <10ms

c. Inspected annually or after repair

7

7. mA and timer linearity

a. ± __% variance

b. Inspected _____ or _____

7. mA and timer linearity

a. ± 10% variance

b. Inspected annually or after repair

8

8. How much can a 1.5mm FS bloom

a. 0.8mm or less = __% bloom

b. 0.8-1.5mm = __% bloom

c. Inspected _____

8. How much can a 1.5mm FS bloom

a. 0.8mm or less = 50% bloom

b. 0.8-1.5mm = 40% bloom

c. Inspected annually

9

9. How do we test for FS size?

a. _____

b. _____

c. _____

d. Inspected _____

9. How do we test for FS size?

a. Pinhole camera

b. Focal spot test tool

c. Resolution test

d. Inspected annually

10

10. What is the HVL at 80 kVp, what is proper filtration at 80 kVp.

a. __mmAl

b. Inspected _____

c. Inspected _____

10. What is the HVL at 80 kVp, what is proper filtration at 80 kVp.

a. 2.3mmAl

b. Inspected annually

c. Inspected on new tubes

11

11. Collimator testing

a. ± __% of SID for one side

b. ± __% of SID for all sides

c. Inspected _____

d. Inspected _____

11. Collimator testing

a. ± 3% of SID for one side

b. ± 4% of SID for all sides

c. Inspected quarterly

d. Inspected after service to tube/collimator

12

12. Light field/x-ray field

a. ± __% of SID

b. Inspected _____

c. Inspected _____

12. Light field/x-ray field

a. ± 2% of SID

b. Inspected quarterly

c. Inspected after service to tube/collimator

13

13. Image receptor/x-ray field

a. ± __% of SID

b. Inspected _____

c. Inspected _____

13. Image receptor/x-ray field

a. ± 1% of SID

b. Inspected quarterly

c. Inspected after service to tube/collimator

14

14. Beam alignments and perpendicularity

a. __° angle

b. Inspected _____

i. Special test _____ needed

14. Beam alignments and perpendicularity

a. 1° angle

b. Inspected annually

i. Special test tool needed

15

15. Overload protection

a. __% of capacity

b. Inspected _____ or _____

15. Overload protection

a. 80% of capacity

b. Inspected annually or after repair

16

16. AEC mA testing

a. ± __% variance

b. Inspected _____ or _____

16. AEC mA testing

a. ± 10% variance

b. Inspected semi-annually or after repair

17

17. AEC kVp testing

a. ± __% variance

b. Inspected _____ or _____

17. AEC kVp testing

a. ± 15% variance

b. Inspected semi-annually or after repair

18

18. AEC field size testing

a. ± __% variance

b. Inspected _____ or _____

18. AEC field size testing

a. ± 5% variance

b. Inspected semi-annually or after repair

19

19. Tomography Section level

a. ± __mm

b. Inspected _____

19. Tomography Section level

a. ± 2mm

b. Inspected annually

20

20. Tomography Exposure angle

a. ± __% for >__°

b. ± __% for

20. Tomography Exposure angle

a. ± 5% for >30°

b. ± 2% for <30°

c. Inspected annually

21

21. Path uniformity

a. ± __ OD

b. Inspected _____

21. Path uniformity

a. ± 0.3 OD

b. Inspected annually

22

22. Grid uniformity and alignment

a. ± __ OD

b. Inspected _____

22. Grid uniformity and alignment

a. ± 0.1 OD

b. Inspected annually

23

23. For each test you need to know when it's done- weekly, monthly etc.

23. For each test you need to know when it's done- weekly, monthly etc.

24

24. What the variance is, like +/- 5%

24. What the variance is, like +/- 5%

25

25. How to calculate the variance

25. How to calculate the variance

26

26. If given the data, that you can calculate the answer.

26. If given the data, that you can calculate the answer.

27

A high-frequency x-ray generator can produce a maximum of 110 kVp and 500 mA at 100 ms. What is the power rating of this generator?

[frequency equation?]

A high-frequency x-ray generator can produce a maximum of 110 kVp and 500 mA at 100 ms. What is the power rating of this generator?

frequency:

kW=((kVp*mA))/1000

=

((110*500))/1000=55kW

28

Describe the three main parts of a quality control program for radiographic units.

Describe the three main parts of a quality control program for radiographic units.

Visual inspection

Environmental inspection

Performance testing

29

Describe the three main types of gas-filled chamber radiation detectors.

_____ = the original detectors, uses scintillation crystal coupled with a _____ tube.

_____ = _____ chamber made of radiolucent material, which allows it to be placed between the grid and the front of the image receptor.

_____ = uses a small _____ or _____ crystal, the crystals are radiolucent and can be placed between the grid and image receptor.

Describe the three main types of gas-filled chamber radiation detectors.

Photodetectors = the original detectors, uses scintillation crystal coupled with a photomultiplier tube.

Ion chambers = gas-filled chamber made of radiolucent material, which allows it to be placed between the grid and the front of the image receptor.

Solid-state detectors = uses a small silicon or germanium crystal, the crystals are radiolucent and can be placed between the grid and image receptor.

30

Discuss the importance of proper reproducibility of exposure of an x-ray generator in regard to image quality and patient dose.

Reproducibility must be within proper variance limits as to ensure consistency between exposures. Consistency removes any randomization of the quantity of x-ray between exposures and ensures that properly exposed radiographs are acquired while patient dose is minimized.

Discuss the importance of proper reproducibility of exposure of an x-ray generator in regard to image quality and patient dose.

Reproducibility must be within proper variance limits as to ensure consistency between exposures. Consistency removes any randomization of the quantity of x-ray between exposures and ensures that properly exposed radiographs are acquired while patient dose is minimized.

31

Discuss the importance of proper beam filtration in regard to image quality and patient dose.

Filtration reduces the quantity of low-energy photons, reducing total quantity, but also increases x-ray quality in permitting a larger majority of higher-energy photons to be utilized. Filtration of low-energy photons reduces up to __% of a patient's skin dose compared to exposures made without filtration.

Discuss the importance of proper beam filtration in regard to image quality and patient dose.

Filtration reduces the quantity of low-energy photons, reducing total quantity, but also increases x-ray quality in permitting a larger majority of higher-energy photons to be utilized. Filtration of low-energy photons reduces up to 90% of a patient's skin dose compared to exposures made without filtration.

32

Describe the basic testing procedure for determining timer accuracy. (Be sure to include all appropriate equations.)

[time equation?]

Inspected _____ and _____

_____ or _____


Describe the basic testing procedure for determining timer accuracy. (Be sure to include all appropriate equations.)

[(mR/mAsmax) - (mR/mAsmin)] / (mR/mAsaverage) 2

Inspected upon installation and annually

Digital solid-state detectors or spinning top method


33

Discuss the importance of proper mA and exposure time linearity and reciprocity in regard to image quality and patient dose.

Maintaining milliampere reciprocity is important as it not only tells us that timer and milliampere linearity are appropriately functioning, but it also helps technologists achieve proper exposures. Because milliamperes and time are inversely proportional in the context of retaining the same exposure, the technologist can confidently compensate accordingly. For example, if a radiograph appears to have an adequate quantity of penetrating x-ray, but there is motion, a technologist can decrease time while inversely increasing milliamperes without changing patient dose.

Discuss the importance of proper mA and exposure time linearity and reciprocity in regard to image quality and patient dose.

Maintaining milliampere reciprocity is important as it not only tells us that timer and milliampere linearity are appropriately functioning, but it also helps technologists achieve proper exposures. Because milliamperes and time are inversely proportional in the context of retaining the same exposure, the technologist can confidently compensate accordingly. For example, if a radiograph appears to have an adequate quantity of penetrating x-ray, but there is motion, a technologist can decrease time while inversely increasing milliamperes without changing patient dose.

34

Describe the difference between actual focal spot and effective focal spot. Discuss how focal spot blooming affects image quality.

_____ focal spot = the actual rectangular surface on the target where electrons strike

_____ focal spot = the actual focal spot viewed from the perspective of the image receptor

Describe the difference between actual focal spot and effective focal spot. Discuss how focal spot blooming affects image quality.

Actual focal spot = the actual rectangular surface on the target where electrons strike

Effective focal spot = the actual focal spot viewed from the perspective of the image receptor

35

Discuss the factors to evaluate within the beam restriction system and their impact on image quality and patient dose.

Inspected _____, _____, _____,

Evaluate: _____, _____, _____, and _____

Discuss the factors to evaluate within the beam restriction system and their impact on image quality and patient dose.

Inspected upon installation, annually, repaired

Evaluate: light field-radiation field alignment (congruence), positive beam limitation systems, accuracy of the x-y scales, and illuminator bulb brightness

36

Discuss the various AEC system quality control parameters to be evaluated and their importance in regard to image quality.

Consistency of exposure with varying milliamperes = any variation cannot exceed +/- __%

Consistency of exposure with varying kilovolts (peak) = the AEC system should be able to adjust the exposure time and maintain optical density with any changes in kilovolts.

Consistency of exposure with varying part thickness = the AEC system should be able to adjust the exposure time and maintain optical density with any changes in part thickness.

Consistency of exposure with varying field sizes = the AEC system should be able to compensate for changes in the area of field, provided the detector remains in the field.

Reproducibility = reproducibility variance must be within __%

Density control function = the density selector switch should allow for changes in radiation exposure of __% to __% for each increment.

Reciprocity law failure = the same amount of radiation should be created at any mAs regardless of the _____ combination used, therefore the optical density of any resulting image should also be the same.

Discuss the various AEC system quality control parameters to be evaluated and their importance in regard to image quality.

Consistency of exposure with varying milliamperes = any variation cannot exceed +/- 10%

Consistency of exposure with varying kilovolts (peak) = the AEC system should be able to adjust the exposure time and maintain optical density with any changes in kilovolts.

Consistency of exposure with varying part thickness = the AEC system should be able to adjust the exposure time and maintain optical density with any changes in part thickness.

Consistency of exposure with varying field sizes = the AEC system should be able to compensate for changes in the area of field, provided the detector remains in the field.

Reproducibility = reproducibility variance must be within 5%

Density control function = the density selector switch should allow for changes in radiation exposure of 25% to 30% for each increment.

Reciprocity law failure = the same amount of radiation should be created at any mAs regardless of the mA/time combination used, therefore the optical density of any resulting image should also be the same.

37

Describe the basic principle of conventional tomography.

Tomography is used to image certain "_____" of the body, whereas all other _____ are blurred. This system helps remove superimposition and improves radiographic contrast in the area of interest.

Describe the basic principle of conventional tomography.

Tomography is used to image certain "slices" of the body, whereas all other slices are blurred. This system helps remove superimposition and improves radiographic contrast in the area of interest.

38

Discuss the factors to be evaluated for conventional tomographic systems and their effects on final image quality.

Section level = the level of the tomographic section (fulcrum level) indicated on the equipment and the actual level of the tomographic section imaged above the tabletop should be the same or within __mm.

Section thickness = the thickness of the tomographic section depends on the tomographic angle.

Exposure angle = the exposure angle determines the _____ of the tomographic section, so it can be used as an alternative to measuring section _____. It is important that the value indicated on the equipment and the actual angle be the same or within __° for units operating at angles greater than __°.

Level incrementation = a ruler should be constructed so that changing from one tomographic section to the next is accurate to within __mm.

Spatial resolution = the ability to _____ objects within the tomographic section (__ holes per inch)

Discuss the factors to be evaluated for conventional tomographic systems and their effects on final image quality.

Section level = the level of the tomographic section (fulcrum level) indicated on the equipment and the actual level of the tomographic section imaged above the tabletop should be the same or within 5mm.

Section thickness = the thickness of the tomographic section depends on the tomographic angle.

Exposure angle = the exposure angle determines the thickness of the tomographic section, so it can be used as an alternative to measuring section thickness. It is important that the value indicated on the equipment and the actual angle be the same or within 5° for units operating at angles greater than 30°.

Level incrementation = a ruler should be constructed so that changing from one tomographic section to the next is accurate to within 2mm.

Spatial resolution = the ability to resolve objects within the tomographic section (40 holes per inch)

39

What are the two main grid variables that should be evaluated during quality control testing?

Grid uniformity = lead strips in the grid are spaced uniformly, otherwise a _____ effect may appear in the image (mimics pathology)

Grid alignment = proper alignment when centering the x-ray field with the focused grid and maintaining the proper grid focusing distance, otherwise _____

What are the two main grid variables that should be evaluated during quality control testing?

Grid uniformity = lead strips in the grid are spaced uniformly, otherwise a mottling effect may appear in the image (mimics pathology)

Grid alignment = proper alignment when centering the x-ray field with the focused grid and maintaining the proper grid focusing distance, otherwise grid cutoff

40

Describe the difference between a portable and a mobile x-ray generator.

Portable x-ray generators are carried from location to location that are mounted on _____ or _____ and can be used in nursing homes, battlefields, and field veterinary use.

Mobile x-ray generators are mounted on _____ and most often found in _____ for the examination of patients who are too ill or injured to be taken to the main radiology department.

Describe the difference between a portable and a mobile x-ray generator.

Portable x-ray generators are carried from location to location that are mounted on metal stand or tripod and can be used in nursing homes, battlefields, and field veterinary use.

Mobile x-ray generators are mounted on wheels and most often found in hospitals for the examination of patients who are too ill or injured to be taken to the main radiology department.

41

Describe the two main components of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system.

An AEC system has two main parts, the detector and the comparactor

Describe the two main components of an automatic exposure control (AEC) system.

An AEC system has two main parts, the detector and the comparactor

42

Which of the following factors related to the quality improvement team is likely to cause a failure of the improvement process?

1. Inability of the group to function as a team

2. Inability of the group to respect the other members of the team

3. Inability of the team to find a common ground


1 only

2 only

3 only

1, 2, & 3

Which of the following factors related to the quality improvement team is likely to cause a failure of the improvement process?

1. Inability of the group to function as a team

2. Inability of the group to respect the other members of the team

3. Inability of the team to find a common ground

1, 2, & 3

43

A threshold is best defined as:

level 1

level 2

level 3

A and B

A threshold is best defined as:

A and B

44

Which of the following are normally characterized as external customers:

1. Third party payers

2. Patient family members

3. The community

1 only

2 only

3 only

1, 2, & 3

Which of the following are normally characterized as external customers:

1. Third party payers

2. Patient family members

3. The community


1, 2, & 3

45

The process which is used to insure excellence in health care through the systematic collection and evaluation of data is termed:


outcome analysis

quality assurance

effective management

integration path

The process which is used to insure excellence in health care through the systematic collection and evaluation of data is termed:


quality assurance

46

The traditional unit used for the measurement of radiation intensity is the:


curie

rem

rad

roentgen

The traditional unit used for the measurement of radiation intensity is the:


roentgen

47

A flow chart is best defined as:


a chart that represents the degree to which a resource is consumed

a tool for analyzing the role of a particular individual

a pictorial representation of the individual steps required in a process

a pictorial representation of the independent and dependent variables

A flow chart is best defined as:


a pictorial representation of the individual steps required in a process

48

Which of the following is not a major quality control tool used for the organization and presentation of data?


control charts

output strategies

cause and effect diagrams

pareto diagrams

Which of the following is not a major quality control tool used for the organization and presentation of data?


output strategies

49

The founding fathers of TQM/CQI Theory are

1. Juron 2. Taylor 3. Deming


2 only

1 and 2

1 and 3

1, 2 and 3

The founding fathers of TQM/CQI Theory are

1. Juron 2. Taylor 3. Deming


1 and 3

50

Photometric readings from each panel of a view box set should not vary by more than 10%.


True

False

Photometric readings from each panel of a view box set should not vary by more than 10%.


False

51

Light bulbs from different lot #s and different manufacturers may be used in the same set of view boxes.


True

False

Light bulbs from different lot #s and different manufacturers may be used in the same set of view boxes.


False

52

Protective apparel have different minimum thickness of lead equivalent based on their purpose, gloves having a lower minimum lead equivalent than aprons.


True

False

Protective apparel have different minimum thickness of lead equivalent based on their purpose, gloves having a lower minimum lead equivalent than aprons.


True

53

The MQRSA, updated regulations covering mammography became enforceable or enacted in 1999.


True

False

The MQRSA, updated regulations covering mammography became enforceable or enacted in 1999.


True

54

In regards to the three important factors for radiation protection, the lowest exposure is possible when the:


distance from the source is as short as possible

shielding is as thin as possible

time of the exposure is as long as possible

none of the above

In regards to the three important factors for radiation protection, the lowest exposure is possible when the:


none of the above

55

A medical facility must report to the FDA any medical devices that have:

1. Failed to perform their required function

2. Caused a serious injury to a patient

3. Caused the death of a patient


1 & 2 only

1 & 3 only

2 & 3 only

1, 2, & 3

A medical facility must report to the FDA any medical devices that have:

1. Failed to perform their required function

2. Caused a serious injury to a patient

3. Caused the death of a patient


2 & 3 only

56

Accreditation through TJC is a mandatory process in the US.


True

False

Accreditation through TJC is a mandatory process in the US.


False

57

In order for a focus group to be effective it should:

1. Consist of at least 30 persons

2. Have a skilled facilitator

3. Elicit predictable responses to prepared questions


1 only

2 only

3 only

1, 2, & 3

In order for a focus group to be effective it should:

1. Consist of at least 30 persons

2. Have a skilled facilitator

3. Elicit predictable responses to prepared questions


2 only

58

A group process which is used to develop a large collection of ideas without regard to their merit or validity is called:


barn burning

benchmarking

bridge working

brainstorming

A group process which is used to develop a large collection of ideas without regard to their merit or validity is called:


brainstorming

59

A serious predictable event that will always require an investigation is termed a/an:


threshold event

criteria active event

sentinel event

apical event

A serious predictable event that will always require an investigation is termed a/an:


sentinel event

60

Which of the following is not an incident that requires the completion of a medical device report?


a malfunctioning bed requires the patient to have immediate surgery

a non-working defibrillator unit that resulted in a failed resuscitation

a serious allergic reaction to an iodinated contrast agent that resulted in the death of the patient

a non-functioning cardiac pacemaker that required an emergency hospitalization

Which of the following is not an incident that requires the completion of a medical device report?


a serious allergic reaction to an iodinated contrast agent that resulted in the death of the patient

61

Reliability is defined as data collections that truly reflect the situation studied.


True

False

Reliability is defined as data collections that truly reflect the situation studied.


False

62

Which of the following established minimum standards for education and certification of radiation operators?


Radiation Control for Health and Safety

Consumer Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act

Consumer Assurance of Radiologic Excellence

none of the above

Which of the following established minimum standards for education and certification of radiation operators?


Consumer Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act

63

An individual, department or organization that provides input toward obtaining a desired outcome is called a:


peer

profiler

supplier

provider

An individual, department or organization that provides input toward obtaining a desired outcome is called a:


supplier