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What are the 4 basic principles of research?

1 - Input: Done to expand and increase knowledge
2- Output: Disseminate, share the knowledge
3- Done in a systematic manner, following proper methods
4 - Creative


Who does research

Everyone, all the time!


What are the 7 key steps in research?

1 - Identify a problem
2- Collect information/observations on the matter
3- Hypothesis
4- Methods: Strategies or ways to address problem
5- Data/info collection
6 - Analysis of information
7- Conclusion/answer to question


What is the purpose of research?

- Review or synthesize existing knowledge
- Generate new knowledge
- Explain new phenomenon
- Investigate existing situations or problems
- Provide solution to problems
- Explore and analyse more general issues
- Construct or create new procedures or systems
- Informed decision making
- Capacity building
- Confirm (or reaffirm) facts


How much does Canada spend on research and development? (R&D) by % GDP?

A bit less than 2% (a bit lower than average)
Trend: Going down, vs. OECD countries going up


How much does Canada spend on research and development? (R&D) in total amount/year

Around 31.6 billion in 2016 (50% in private sector, 25% in Quebec) = around 1000$ per person
Province receiving highest amount is Ontario


Name 4 benefits of research and explain them.

- Research activity (benefits from the actions of research (not outputs), i.e. training students
- Commercialization (Sales an revenues of commercialized findings (pharmaceuticals, spin-off companies))
- Health benefits (net benefit of improving health vs. cost to the HC system)
- Well-being (happiness, QOL)


Explain the "know how" vs. the "know what" - how does it apply to research methods?

Know what: memorization
Know how: understand principles and apply. Research is not about memorization --> more about know how!


Name the 4 main question types

1- Memory
2- Convergent
3- Divergent
4- Evaluative


Explain what a memory question is.

Test reproduction of facts (name, define, who, what, yes/no responses)


Explain what a convergent question is.

Integrate analyses leading to an answer (compare/contrast, explain relationships)


Explain what a divergent question is.

Spur independent ideas (imagine, suppose, predict, if-then, what are possible consequences) (from single observation to expanding to other possible observations)


Explain what an evaluative question is.

Those of judgement, value, choice (defend, justify, what do you think about, what is your opinion of)


What are the 3 main types of research?

- Exploratory
- Descriptive
- Explanatory


What is exploratory research?

Scoping, generate ideas, test feasibility, casual observations. Background research that will help you design a hypothesis and methods


What is descriptive research?

Careful observations and note taking, use scientific method, what/where/when of phenomenon, associative research


What is explanatory research?

Seeks to explain observations, addresses how/why questions, attempts to connect the dots, causality)


What is the difference between availability heuristic and representative heuristic?

Availability heuristics: Judge the likelihood of an event based on a similar case that easily comes to mind
Representative heuristic: Judge likelihood by how much it resembles something "typical" (e.g. all salads must be healthy)


Why is our gut thinking "flawed"?

- Better than average effect
- Overconfidence phenomenon (we are often overly confident about our judgements)
- Hindsight bias (we overestimate our ability to have predicted results)
- Confirmation bias (we focus on the info that proves we are correct)
- Introspection (we reflect on our own thoughts/experiences to find relevant evidence)


Why would it be wrong to use anecdotal evidence?

Personal anecdotes come from our own perspectives; cannot generalize
Law of small numbers (outliers)


Science or pseudoscience?
1. Willingness to change with new evidence
2. fixed ideas

1. Science
2. Pseudoscience


Is pseudoscience peer-reviewed?



Can science only take into account favorable discoveries?

No. Science takes into account all new discoveries, while pseudoscience selects only favorable discoveries


Science or pseudoscience?
1. Invites criticism
2. Sees criticism as conspiracy

1. Science
2. Pseudoscience


Are results of pseudoscience verifiable and repeatable?

No, only science has verifiable and repeatable results


Does pseudoscience have claims of usefulness?

Yes, they have claims of widespread usefulness, while science limits those claims


Pseudoscience uses ball-park measurements?

Yes (vs. science = accurate measurements)


Discuss theoretical and empirical planes in link with scientific research.

Constructs are conceptualized at the theoretical plane (proposition that a construct A leads to construct B by a cause-effect relationship)
Empirical plane is the experiment - variables are operationalized and measured at the empirical (observational) plane - independant variable --> hypothesis --> dependant variable


Explain theory/model building.

In answering our question, we advance one or more tentative explanations (hypotheses). We then use deduction to narrow down the tentative explanations to the most plausible explanation based on logic and reasonable premises (based on our understanding of the phenomenon under study). Researchers must be able to move back and forth between inductive and deductive reasoning if they are to post extensions or modifications to a given model or theory, or built better ones, which are the essence of scientific research.


Differentiate induction and deduction.

Deduction is the process of drawing conclusions about a phenomenon or behavior based on theoretical or logical reasons and an initial set of premises. (from general to specific)
o Derive a hypothesis from a theory, use a general principle to reach more specific conclusion
o E.g. if you have a stomach ulcer, THEN this additional medical test (e.g. barium swallow) should yield the following result (e.g. ulcer visible on X-ray)

Induction is the process of drawing conclusions based on specific facts or observed evidence. Induction occurs when we observe a fact and ask, “Why is this happening?” (from specific to general; from observations to a theory); ex. diagnosing someone based on symptoms
o Use specific facts to form a general conclusion
o E.g. gather specific information on your patients’ symptoms and then form a hypothesis
o E.g. gather facts from past research studies