quiz 1: CNs 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in quiz 1: CNs 1 and 2 Deck (72):
1

CN 1 is called the ___ nerve

olfactory

2

primary sensory neurons are called ___

olfactory neurons

3

olfactory neurons are ___

bipolar

4

where are olfactory neurons found?

olfactory epithelium lining the superior part of the nasal cavity

5

what covers the olfactory epithelium?

a thin layer of mucus

6

what supports olfactory neurons?

supporting cells

7

what functions as receptors?

hairs

8

are olfactory neuron axons myelinated?

no, but covered by Schwann cells

9

where do olfactory nerves pass through?

cribriform plate

10

what is the pathway of olfactory nerves?

olfactory bulb-> synapse on dendrites of mitral cells

11

what are formed at the synapses?

synaptic glomeruli

12

what are the secondary sensory neurons?

mitral cells

13

where are mitral cell's cell bodies located?

in the olfactory bulb

14

how do mitral cells relay information?

via the olfactory tract

15

where do tract fibers split?

at the anterior perforated substance

16

do medial stria fibers cross the midline?

yes, via the anterior commissure

17

where do medial stria fibers travel to?

the opposite olfactory bulb

18

where do lateral stria fibers carry information to?

primary olfactory cortex

19

where specifically do lateral stria fibers carry information to?

periamygdaloid and prepiriform area, and the uncus (BA 34)

20

what is considered part of the secondary olfactory cortex?

entorhinal area

21

how many neurons does it take to go from the receptor to the cortex?

2

22

what structure doesn't have a synapse?

thalamus

23

info about the terminal nerve

from nasal septum; autonomic

24

info about the vomeronasal nerve

poorly developed in humans; important for tracking prey

25

what is the term for loss of smell

anosmia

26

when you have CSF dripping from your nose, what can that be an indicator of?

skull fracture

27

what is the name for CN 2?

optic nerve

28

how many layers does the eye have?

3

29

what is the outermost layer of the eye?

fibrous tunic

30

what does the fibrous tunic consist of?

sclera and cornea

31

what is a continuation of the sclera?

cornea

32

what is the middle layer of the eye?

vascular tunic

33

what does the vascular tunic consist of?

ciliary body, iris, choroid

34

what is the innermost layer of the eye?

retina

35

what layer of the retina is adjacent to the choroid?

pigmented layer

36

what layer of the retina is photosensitive?

outer segment-> rods and cones

37

what layer of the retina is between the outer segment and outer nuclear layers?

external limiting membrane

38

which layer of the retina contains rod and cone cell bodies?

outer nuclear layer

39

which layer of the retina contains rod and cone and bipolar cell synapses?

outer plexiform layer

40

which layer of the retina contains cell bodies of bipolar cells?

inner nuclear layer

41

which layer of the retina contains bipolar cells and ganglion cells synapses?

inner plexiform layer

42

which layer of the retina contains ganglion cells?

ganglion cell layer

43

which layer of the retina contains unmyelinated retinal ganglion cell axons?

nerve fiber layer

44

which layer of the retina is a glial boundary separating the retina from the vitreous body?

internal limiting membrane

45

which layer of the retina contains cones and is where a retina would detach?

internal limiting membrane

46

which receives color information: rods or cones?

cones

47

what makes cones most functional?

adequate lighting

48

what is the name of the point where you can see most clearly?

fovea centralis

49

which can only sense light and dark: rods or cones?

rods

50

are there rods in the fovea centralis?

no

51

depolarized photoreceptors relay information to bipolar cells by synapsing in the ___

outer plexiform layer

52

bipolar cell bodies are found in the ___

inner nuclear layer

53

bipolar cells relay information to ___

ganglion cells

54

bipolar cell and ganglion cell synapses occur in the ___

inner plexiform layer

55

axons from ganglion cells are conveyed in the nerve fiber layer toward the ___

optic disc

56

what are the axons carried in after leaving the eyeball?

optic nerve

57

where do optic nerves enter the skull?

optic canal-> unites to form the optic chiasma

58

are nerve fiber layer axons myelinated?

no

59

are optic nerve axons myelinated?

yes

60

what cells form the myelin?

interfascicular oligodendrocytes

61

in the optic chiasma, fibers from the ___ side of each retina will cross

medial

62

optic chiasma fibers split to form the ___

optic tracts

63

what does the optic tract travel around?

cerebral peduncles

64

where do the optic tracts fibers synapse on?

lateral geniculate body, superior colliculus, pretectal nucleus of the midbrain

65

from the lateral geniculate body, where are fibers relayed?

cerebral cortex in BA 17

66

what muscles are influenced by the tectospinal tract?

trapezius and SCM

67

fibers in the pretectal nucleus deal with ___

light reflexes

68

what is affected when there is a lesion in the optic nerve?

depth perception

69

what is affected by a lesion in the optic chiasma?

tunnel vision

70

what is caused by a lesion in the optic tract?

loss of half of visual field

71

visual reflexes: afferent only, efferent only, or both?

afferent only

72

what are some visual reflexes?

direct and consensual light reflexes, accommodation reflex, corneal reflex, convergence