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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (27):

Conservation tasks

Piagetian tasks that involve changing the shape of a substance to determine whether children can go beyond the way that substance’s visually appearance and understand that the volume is retained.


Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory

Jean Piaget’s principle that from infancy to adolescence, children progress through four qualitatively different stages of intellectual growth.



Evaluating oneself as either “good” or “bad” as a result of comparing the self to other people.


Learned helplessness

A state that develops when a person feels incapable of affecting the outcome of events, and gives up without trying.



In Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s belief that inanimate objects are alive.



In Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s belief that human beings make everything in nature



testosterone: The hormone responsible for the maturation of reproductive organs in men as well as hair and skin changes during puberty and for sexual desire in both sexes.



The sex organs—the ovaries in girls and the testes in boys.


Identity constancy

In Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s inability to grasp that a person’s core “self ” stays the same despite changes in external appearance.


Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development

1-Sensorimotor. Birth through ages 18-24 months.

2-Preoperational. Toddlerhood (18-24 months) through early childhood (age 7)

3-Concrete operational. Ages 7 to 12.

4-Formal operational. Adolescence through adulthood.


6 Types of play

Unoccupied (play) – when the child is not playing, just observing. A child may be standing in one spot or performing random movements.

Solitary (independent) play – when the child is alone and maintains focus on its activity. Such a child is uninterested in or is unaware of what others are doing. More common in younger children (age 2–3) as opposed to older ones.

Onlooker play (behavior) – when the child watches others at play but does not engage in it.The child may engage in forms of social interaction, such as conversation about the play, without actually joining in the activity.This type of activity is also more common in younger children.

Parallel play (adjacent play, social coaction) – when the child plays separately from others but close to them and mimicking their actions.This type of play is seen as a transitory stage from a socially immature solitary and onlooker type of play, to a more socially mature associative and cooperative type of play.

Associative play – when the child is interested in the people playing but not in coordinating their activities with those people, or when there is no organized activity at all. There is a substantial amount of interaction involved, but the activities are not in sync.

Cooperative play – when a child is interested both in the people playing and in the activity they are doing. In cooperative play, the activity is organized, and participants have assigned roles. There is also increased self-identification with a group, and a group identity may emerge. This is relatively uncommon in the preschool and Kindergarten years, because it requires more social maturity and more advanced organization skills. Examples would be dramatic play activities with roles, like playing school, or a game with rules, such as freeze tag.


Gender differences in play behavior

gender-segregated play: Play in which boys and girls associate only with members of their own sex—typical of childhood



BMI, a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over30 kg/m2


Harter’s 5 stages of self-esteem

1-scholastic competence (academic talents);
2-behavioral conduct (obedience or being “good”);
3-athletic skills (performance at sports);
4-peer likeability (popularity); and
5-physical appearance (looks).


Kohlberg’s levels of moral reasoning

Pre-conventional- no internal moral sense
Conventional- focused on obeying societies rules/norms
Post-conventional- focused on inner moral guidelines apart from society


Characteristics of bullies

Doesn’t follow rules
Usually physically stronger


Characteristics of the bullied

No friends
Low self esteem



The zone of proximal development, often abbreviated as ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help, and what they can't do. The concept was introduced, but not fully developed, by psychologist Lev Vygotsk


Primary & secondary sex characteristics

primary sex characteristics (or body structures directly concerned with reproduction) that allows us to tell males from females, such as the penis in men and the vagina in women, secondary sex characteristics, on the other hand, are features which appear at puberty (though they later become equally as prominent). These secondary characteristics are features such as pubic hair, breast development in females, and beards in males.


Marcia’s identity statuses

Identity Diffusion – the status in which the adolescent does no have a sense of having choices; he or she has not yet made (nor is attempting/willing to make) a commitment
Identity Foreclosure – the status in which the adolescent seems willing to commit to some relevant roles, values, or goals for the future. Adolescents in this stage have not experienced an identity crisis. They tend to conform to the expectations of others regarding their future (e. g. allowing a parent to determine a career direction) As such, these individuals have not explored a range of options.


Gender schema theory

cognitive theory to explain how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture


Internalizing and externalizing tendencies

Internalizing behaviors are negative behaviors that are focused inward. They include fearfulness, social withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Unlike internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors are directed outward toward others. Bullying, vandalism, and arson are examples of externalizing behaviors.


Personal fable

Personal Fable is a belief held by many adolescents telling them that they are special and unique, so much so that none of life's difficulties or problems will affect them regardless of their behavior


Imaginary audience

imaginary audience refers to a state where an individual imagines and believes that multitudes of people are enthusiastically listening to or watching him or her.


Frontal lobe development

The frontal lobes, home to key components of the neural circuitry underlying “executive functions” such as planning, working memory, and impulse control, are among the last areas of the brain to mature; they may not be fully developed until halfway through the third decade of life


Intramental & intermental functioning

Intramental ability exists within the child while intermental ability occurs in the relationship between people


HPG sequence

The HPG axis plays a critical part in the development and regulation of a number of the body's systems, such as the reproductive and immune systems. Fluctuations in this axis cause changes in the hormones produced by each gland and have various local and systemic effects on the body