True or false:

the lower the fundamental frequency is the more frequencies will appear in the harmonic series?

True

What is the equation for a wavelength?

See physical flashcards

Can we measure a wavelength from any point in one cycle to the same point in the next cycle?

Yes

Frequency is directly related to…?

Pitch

What is harmonics?

All the tones created by complex vibrations

What is periodic?

The pattern of vibration repeating itself

True or false:

a simple sine wave is always periodic?

True

What is a complex wave?

Multiple frequencies

What can young and healthy ears detect vibrations as low as and as high as?

20 Hz and 20,000 Hz.

Speech is heard at 100 Hz to 5000 Hz

What does a spectral plot give us?

Amplitude on the Y axis and frequency on the X axis

What are the physical properties of Sound?

- Time
- Intensity/amplitude
- Frequency
- period
- Velocity

How do you calculate the harmonic series when the sound is 200 Hz and the fundamental frequency equals 200

first harmonic = 200x1= 200Hz

second harmonic 200×2 = 400 Hz

third harmonic is 200×3 = 600 Hz

And so on

How can a periodic wave be distinguished from an aperiodic wave?

Based on the mathematical relationships among the frequencies of their components. Aperiodic won’t have a pattern or a mathematical relationship

What is the fundamental frequency?

Lowest frequency there is in a waveform/complex tone

What is a phase relationship?

Where waveforms meet

What is amplitude measured in?

Decibels (dB)

When would you expect to see higher frequencies that are farther apart?

Whenever you start with a higher fundamental frequency

For a child with a high pitch will they have more frequencies in the harmonic series or less

Less. Fewer frequencies and are farther apart because you start with a higher fundamental freq.

Are intensity and loudness linearly related?

No

What are boundary behaviors?

Sound bouncing off the object and sound returning

True or false:

as frequencies get higher, it takes a larger change in Hz to cause a change in sensation of Pitch?

True

Can a simple tone/waveform be aperiodic?

No

What is always the first harmonic in the series?

Fundamental frequency

Does a harmonic need to include all the harmonic series?

No, it can skip, but it must be a mathematical relationship between odds and evens

What is a constructive pressure wave?

When crest meets crest or troughs meet trough

In phase and 90% out of phase

What are the perceptual properties of sound?

- Loudness

- Pitch

What is pitch measured?

Mels

What is Hz measured in?

Cycles per second

What is a complex wave?

Different frequencies

What is “in phase”?

When troughs and peaks of the waveform are in the same wave

What is reverberate?

Sound bounces back and forth. Echo

What is a wave pattern of vibrations, no matter how complex and how often it repeats itself?

Complex periodic soundwave

What is a destructive pressure wave?

When crest meets trough (silence)

If the vibration of a wave is random and has no repeatable pattern it is…?

A complex aperiodic soundwave

Sound = tone Wave = how it travels Waveforms = when we draw it out

.

Is loudness perceptual or physical?

Perceptual

It is perceived that if the intensity is higher than it is louder

What type of tone will you get with two pure tones of the same frequency?

Pure tone/sine wave

What are waves characteristics?

- Boundary behaviors
- Interference patterns
- pure tones

What type of tone will you get with two pure tones of different frequencies?

A complex tone

What is the velocity for meters?

344 m/seconds

What is velocity measured in feet?

1130 feet/second

What is the resulting wave of two signals of the same frequency and 180° out of phase?

The result is silence. Each particle has been subjected to equal forces acting in opposing directions

Proper acoustic design helps with what?

Sound travel through space ( e.g. Concert halls)

What is the Fourier analysis?

A different sort of displaying called a spectral plot. That allows us to indicate the frequency and amplitude of each harmonic in a complex periodic wave

What two factors does wavelength depends upon?

- The velocity of a soundwave (c)
- The frequency of the vibration (f)

See the equation for wavelength

What is a Pure tone?

- A single periodic frequency vibrating in simple harmonic motion/creates a sign wave.
- A vibration that repeats itself at a constant number of cycles per second.
- It is unnatural

What is the resulting wave of two signals of the same frequency for “in phase”, 90% out of phase and 180% out of phase?

They will have an amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of each wave

What is considered noise?

An aperiodic complex tone of two or more components frequencies not harmonically related. No fundamental frequency. No harmonics.

What does a wavelength represent?

The velocity over the frequency. It represents one cycle.

What is aperiodic?

No repeatable patterns of vibration in the soundwave

We can determine the fundamental frequency of the sound the waveform represents by…?

- Counting the number of times it’s patterned is repeated per cycle
- We can then calculate the frequency of the individual harmonics
- We cannot discover the amplitudes of individual harmonics

What is pitch?

- a sensation

- a perception by listener when frequencies change

What is a harmonic series?

Each tone created in a complex vibration is called “harmonic”. The whole set of tones is called harmonic series

What are interference patterns?

- Signals of the same frequency can interfere with each other
- Same frequency, two sources or signal is reflected from a barrier and competes with itself

Loudness is directly related to what?

Amplitude/intensity

What is loudness measured by?

Phones and sones

The amplitude of the vibration is…?

The extent of particle displacement, which is an indication of the intensity or power of the sound

What is a sine wave?

A pure tone. Single frequency

What are the three graphic representations for analysis of sound?

- Waveform
- Spectral plot
- Spectrogram

Low-frequency wave has more or less vibratory cycles/second?

More

Do lower frequencies have a bigger or smaller wavelength?

Bigger

High-frequency waves have more or less vibratory cycles per second?

Less

Higher frequency sounds have shorter or longer wavelength

Shorter/smaller