Quiz #2 Flashcards Preview

Fall '12- Phonetics exam #1 > Quiz #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz #2 Deck (63)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

True or false:

the lower the fundamental frequency is the more frequencies will appear in the harmonic series?

A

True

2
Q

What is the equation for a wavelength?

A

See physical flashcards

3
Q

Can we measure a wavelength from any point in one cycle to the same point in the next cycle?

A

Yes

4
Q

Frequency is directly related to…?

A

Pitch

5
Q

What is harmonics?

A

All the tones created by complex vibrations

6
Q

What is periodic?

A

The pattern of vibration repeating itself

7
Q

True or false:

a simple sine wave is always periodic?

A

True

8
Q

What is a complex wave?

A

Multiple frequencies

9
Q

What can young and healthy ears detect vibrations as low as and as high as?

A

20 Hz and 20,000 Hz.

Speech is heard at 100 Hz to 5000 Hz

10
Q

What does a spectral plot give us?

A

Amplitude on the Y axis and frequency on the X axis

11
Q

What are the physical properties of Sound?

A
  • Time
  • Intensity/amplitude
  • Frequency
  • period
  • Velocity
12
Q

How do you calculate the harmonic series when the sound is 200 Hz and the fundamental frequency equals 200

A

first harmonic = 200x1= 200Hz
second harmonic 200×2 = 400 Hz
third harmonic is 200×3 = 600 Hz
And so on

13
Q

How can a periodic wave be distinguished from an aperiodic wave?

A

Based on the mathematical relationships among the frequencies of their components. Aperiodic won’t have a pattern or a mathematical relationship

14
Q

What is the fundamental frequency?

A

Lowest frequency there is in a waveform/complex tone

15
Q

What is a phase relationship?

A

Where waveforms meet

16
Q

What is amplitude measured in?

A

Decibels (dB)

17
Q

When would you expect to see higher frequencies that are farther apart?

A

Whenever you start with a higher fundamental frequency

18
Q

For a child with a high pitch will they have more frequencies in the harmonic series or less

A

Less. Fewer frequencies and are farther apart because you start with a higher fundamental freq.

19
Q

Are intensity and loudness linearly related?

A

No

20
Q

What are boundary behaviors?

A

Sound bouncing off the object and sound returning

21
Q

True or false:

as frequencies get higher, it takes a larger change in Hz to cause a change in sensation of Pitch?

A

True

22
Q

Can a simple tone/waveform be aperiodic?

A

No

23
Q

What is always the first harmonic in the series?

A

Fundamental frequency

24
Q

Does a harmonic need to include all the harmonic series?

A

No, it can skip, but it must be a mathematical relationship between odds and evens

25
Q

What is a constructive pressure wave?

A

When crest meets crest or troughs meet trough

In phase and 90% out of phase

26
Q

What are the perceptual properties of sound?

A
  • Loudness

- Pitch

27
Q

What is pitch measured?

A

Mels

28
Q

What is Hz measured in?

A

Cycles per second

29
Q

What is a complex wave?

A

Different frequencies

30
Q

What is “in phase”?

A

When troughs and peaks of the waveform are in the same wave

31
Q

What is reverberate?

A

Sound bounces back and forth. Echo

32
Q

What is a wave pattern of vibrations, no matter how complex and how often it repeats itself?

A

Complex periodic soundwave

33
Q

What is a destructive pressure wave?

A

When crest meets trough (silence)

34
Q

If the vibration of a wave is random and has no repeatable pattern it is…?

A

A complex aperiodic soundwave

35
Q
Sound = tone
Wave = how it travels
Waveforms = when we draw it out
A

.

36
Q

Is loudness perceptual or physical?

A

Perceptual

It is perceived that if the intensity is higher than it is louder

37
Q

What type of tone will you get with two pure tones of the same frequency?

A

Pure tone/sine wave

38
Q

What are waves characteristics?

A
  • Boundary behaviors
  • Interference patterns
  • pure tones
39
Q

What type of tone will you get with two pure tones of different frequencies?

A

A complex tone

40
Q

What is the velocity for meters?

A

344 m/seconds

41
Q

What is velocity measured in feet?

A

1130 feet/second

42
Q

What is the resulting wave of two signals of the same frequency and 180° out of phase?

A

The result is silence. Each particle has been subjected to equal forces acting in opposing directions

43
Q

Proper acoustic design helps with what?

A

Sound travel through space ( e.g. Concert halls)

44
Q

What is the Fourier analysis?

A

A different sort of displaying called a spectral plot. That allows us to indicate the frequency and amplitude of each harmonic in a complex periodic wave

45
Q

What two factors does wavelength depends upon?

A
  • The velocity of a soundwave (c)
  • The frequency of the vibration (f)

See the equation for wavelength

46
Q

What is a Pure tone?

A
  • A single periodic frequency vibrating in simple harmonic motion/creates a sign wave.
  • A vibration that repeats itself at a constant number of cycles per second.
  • It is unnatural
47
Q

What is the resulting wave of two signals of the same frequency for “in phase”, 90% out of phase and 180% out of phase?

A

They will have an amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of each wave

48
Q

What is considered noise?

A

An aperiodic complex tone of two or more components frequencies not harmonically related. No fundamental frequency. No harmonics.

49
Q

What does a wavelength represent?

A

The velocity over the frequency. It represents one cycle.

50
Q

What is aperiodic?

A

No repeatable patterns of vibration in the soundwave

51
Q

We can determine the fundamental frequency of the sound the waveform represents by…?

A
  • Counting the number of times it’s patterned is repeated per cycle
  • We can then calculate the frequency of the individual harmonics
  • We cannot discover the amplitudes of individual harmonics
52
Q

What is pitch?

A
  • a sensation

- a perception by listener when frequencies change

53
Q

What is a harmonic series?

A

Each tone created in a complex vibration is called “harmonic”. The whole set of tones is called harmonic series

54
Q

What are interference patterns?

A
  • Signals of the same frequency can interfere with each other
  • Same frequency, two sources or signal is reflected from a barrier and competes with itself
55
Q

Loudness is directly related to what?

A

Amplitude/intensity

56
Q

What is loudness measured by?

A

Phones and sones

57
Q

The amplitude of the vibration is…?

A

The extent of particle displacement, which is an indication of the intensity or power of the sound

58
Q

What is a sine wave?

A

A pure tone. Single frequency

59
Q

What are the three graphic representations for analysis of sound?

A
  • Waveform
  • Spectral plot
  • Spectrogram
60
Q

Low-frequency wave has more or less vibratory cycles/second?

A

More

61
Q

Do lower frequencies have a bigger or smaller wavelength?

A

Bigger

62
Q

High-frequency waves have more or less vibratory cycles per second?

A

Less

63
Q

Higher frequency sounds have shorter or longer wavelength

A

Shorter/smaller