Quiz 2 Infection control COPY Flashcards Preview

Foundations > Quiz 2 Infection control COPY > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 2 Infection control COPY Deck (46):
1

Infection

the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting in disease.

2

Colonization

a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection

3

Disease results from

Entry and multiplication of organisms

4

the body’s first line of defense is?

Intact Skin-

5

Communicable disease

infectious process transmitted from one person to another.

6

symptomatic infection

If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms

7

asymptomatic

clinical signs and symptoms are not present

8

Hand hygiene

the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infection.

9

Chain of Infection

Infectious agent or pathogen
Reservoir or source for pathogen growth
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible host

10

Immunocompromised

means having an impaired immune system.

11

Virulence

ability to produce disease

12

Aerobic bacteria

require oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease

13

Anaerobic bacteria

no oxygen required

14

bacteriostasis

prevention of growth and reproduction of bacteria.

15

bactericidal

destructive to bacteria

16

Infectious Process

incubation period
Prodromal Stage
Illness stage
Convalescence

17

Risks of Infection

Inadequate hand hygiene (client and caregivers).
Individuals who are immuno-compromised.
Older adults
Clients living in crowded environments
Individuals with poor lifestyle choices
Caregiver providing medical or surgical asepsis that does not follow established standards.
Clients who have poor hygiene
poor nutrition
smokes or drinks alcohol excessively
high levels of stress.

18

Defenses Against Infection

Normal flora
Body system defenses
Inflammation

19

Signs of local inflammation and infection

Swelling, redness, heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part

20

Inflammation

Vascular and cellular responses
Delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to an area of injury.
Neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or dead necrotic tissue and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues.
Exudates (serous, sanguineous, or purulent)
Tissue repair

21

Health Care–Associated Infections (HAIs)

Results from delivery of health services in a health care facility

22

Patients at high risk of HAIs

Multiple illnesses
Older adults
Poorly nourished
Lowered resistance to infection

23

Types of HAI infection

Iatrogenic, Exogenous, Endogenous

24

Latrogenic HAI

Results from a procedure

25

Exogenous HAI

Comes from microorganisms outside the patient

26

Endogenous HAI

when the patient’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results


27

Major sites for HAI infection

Surgical or traumatic wounds
Urinary and respiratory tracts
Bloodstream

28

Nursing diagnoses for infection

-Risk of infection
-nutrition less than the body requires
-impaired oral mucous membrane
-risk for impaired skin integrity
-social isolation

29

Common goals of care to patients with infection

Preventing exposure to infectious organisms
Controlling or reducing the extent of infection
Maintaining resistance to infection
Verbalizing understanding of infection prevention and control techniques

30

Screening for Infection

Increased WBC
Elevated sedimentation rate
Positive cultures of urine and blood

31

Assessment for Infection

Fever
presence of chills
increased pulse and respiratory rate
malaise
fatigue
anorexia
nausea
vomiting
abdominal cramping
diarrhea
enlarged lymph nodes.
Older adults- confusion, agitation, incontinence

32

Asepsis

Absence of pathogenic microorganisms.

33

Aseptic technique

Practices/ procedures that assist in reducing the risk for infection

34

Medical asepsis, or clean technique

procedures or practices for reducing the number, growth, and spread of organisms present and preventing the transfer of organisms.

35

Surgical asepsis or sterile technique

procedures or practices to eliminate or prevents contamination of an open wound, serves to isolate the operative area from the unsterile environment, and maintains a sterile field for surgery.

36

Disinfection

process that eliminates many or all microorganisms, with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects

37

Sterilization

the complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms, including spores

38

Infection Prevention and Control

Patient safety Including, separate personal care items
Wound cleaning
Patient education
Cough etiquette
Isolation and isolation precautions
Surgical asepsis

39

Cough Etiquette

cover nose/mouth
surgical mask when transporting patient
Perform hand hygiene after contact with contaminated respiratory secretions
Maintain spatial separation greater than 3 feet from persons with respiratory infection

40

Isolation

separation and restriction of movement of ill persons with contagious diseases.

41

Contact precautions

Direct and indirect contact with patients and their environments

42

Droplet precautions

Large droplets expelled into the air and travel 3 to 6 feet from the patient.

43

Airborne precautions

Smaller droplets which remain in air for longer periods of time. Requires specially equipped room with negative air flow.

44

Protective environment

Requires specialized room with positive airflow. No flowers or potted plants

45

Personal protective equipment

Gowns, masks, eye protection, gloves

46

Principles of Surgical Asepsis

1.A sterile object remains sterile only when touched by another sterile object
2.Only sterile objects may be placed on a sterile field.
3.A sterile object or field out of the range of vision or an object held below a person’s waist is contaminated.
4.A sterile object or field becomes contaminated by prolonged exposure to air.
5.When a sterile surface comes in contact with a wet, contaminated surface, the sterile object or field becomes contaminated by capillary action.
6.Fluid flows in the direction of gravity.
7.The edges of a sterile field or container are considered to be contaminated.