Flashcards in Quiz 2 Infection control Deck (46):
the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens or microorganisms, resulting in disease.
a microorganism invades the host but does not cause infection
Disease results from
Entry and multiplication of organisms
the body’s first line of defense is?
infectious process transmitted from one person to another.
If pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms
clinical signs and symptoms are not present
the most important technique to use in preventing and controlling transmission of infection.
Chain of Infection
Infectious agent or pathogen
Reservoir or source for pathogen growth
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
means having an impaired immune system.
ability to produce disease
require oxygen for survival and for multiplication sufficient to cause disease
no oxygen required
prevention of growth and reproduction of bacteria.
destructive to bacteria
Risks of Infection
Inadequate hand hygiene (client and caregivers).
Individuals who are immuno-compromised.
Clients living in crowded environments
Individuals with poor lifestyle choices
Caregiver providing medical or surgical asepsis that does not follow established standards.
Clients who have poor hygiene
smokes or drinks alcohol excessively
high levels of stress.
Defenses Against Infection
Body system defenses
Signs of local inflammation and infection
Swelling, redness, heat, pain or tenderness, and loss of function in the affected body part
Vascular and cellular responses
Delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to an area of injury.
Neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or dead necrotic tissue and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues.
Exudates (serous, sanguineous, or purulent)
Health Care–Associated Infections (HAIs)
Results from delivery of health services in a health care facility
Patients at high risk of HAIs
Lowered resistance to infection
Types of HAI infection
Iatrogenic, Exogenous, Endogenous
Results from a procedure
Comes from microorganisms outside the patient
when the patient’s flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results
Major sites for HAI infection
Surgical or traumatic wounds
Urinary and respiratory tracts
Nursing diagnoses for infection
-Risk of infection
-nutrition less than the body requires
-impaired oral mucous membrane
-risk for impaired skin integrity
Common goals of care to patients with infection
Preventing exposure to infectious organisms
Controlling or reducing the extent of infection
Maintaining resistance to infection
Verbalizing understanding of infection prevention and control techniques
Screening for Infection
Elevated sedimentation rate
Positive cultures of urine and blood
Assessment for Infection
presence of chills
increased pulse and respiratory rate
enlarged lymph nodes.
Older adults- confusion, agitation, incontinence
Absence of pathogenic microorganisms.
Practices/ procedures that assist in reducing the risk for infection
Medical asepsis, or clean technique
procedures or practices for reducing the number, growth, and spread of organisms present and preventing the transfer of organisms.
Surgical asepsis or sterile technique
procedures or practices to eliminate or prevents contamination of an open wound, serves to isolate the operative area from the unsterile environment, and maintains a sterile field for surgery.
process that eliminates many or all microorganisms, with the exception of bacterial spores, from inanimate objects
the complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms, including spores
Infection Prevention and Control
Patient safety Including, separate personal care items
Isolation and isolation precautions
surgical mask when transporting patient
Perform hand hygiene after contact with contaminated respiratory secretions
Maintain spatial separation greater than 3 feet from persons with respiratory infection
separation and restriction of movement of ill persons with contagious diseases.
Direct and indirect contact with patients and their environments
Large droplets expelled into the air and travel 3 to 6 feet from the patient.
Smaller droplets which remain in air for longer periods of time. Requires specially equipped room with negative air flow.
Requires specialized room with positive airflow. No flowers or potted plants
Personal protective equipment
Gowns, masks, eye protection, gloves