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What are the infectious agents of dental caries?

They are the indigenous flora of the oral cavity. There are over 500 species, and they only present a problem when they are allowed to form a biofilm on tooth surfaces.


Can the caries process be prevented?

The formation of cavities can be prevented by controlling the caries process, but metabolic fluctuations in the biofilm cannot be prevented. Caries is a ubiquitous natural process.


How can we control disease progression?

We can control it by influencing biofilm formation and growth and by modifying the dissolution kinetics of the apatites. And how do we achieve these two things:
1) Mechanical/chemical removal of plaque
2) Chemical modification of plaque
3) Use of fluorides
4) Dietary composition
5) Salivary composition and stimulation


What is involved with the oral bacterial test?

There is a monoclonal antibody in the device, and it has sensitivity for strep mutans. 500,000 cfu/ml


What is involved with the saliva test?

Unstimulated: Visual inspection (<60 sec), pH measurement (6.8-7.8), saliva consistency (water vs ropey vs frothy)
Stimulated: Saliva quantity (1-1.5 ml) and buffering capacity


Dental floss has been shown to have a caries controlling effect on proximal surfaces when used as a supervised preventative measure by children at school. True or False?

False - Only when performed by a professional may a caries reduction be obtained. It can reduce bacterial deposits though.


What is the name of the ionic antimicrobial?



What is the name of the non-ionic antimicrobial?



What is clorhexidine and how does it work?

It is a bisbiguanide with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Positively charged molecules bind to charged groups like mucosa, bacteria, pellicle. It disrupts the microbial membrane integrity. It causes leakage. High concentration = bacteriocidal. Low conc = bacteriostatic.