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1

The study of distribution and determinants of disease and injuries in human populations; cause and effect, patterns of distribution of disease

Epidemiology

2

The reproduction of an infectious microorganism, but there is no interaction between the body and microorganisms that would result in a detectable immune response

Colonization

3

Person who is colonized but not ill/no symptoms

Carrier

4

Ability of an infectious agent to cause clinical disease

Pathogenicity

5

The severity of a clinical disease, morbidity, etc.

Virulence

6

6 elements needed to transmit infection

Infectious agent
Reservoir/environment in which the pathogenic microbes can live and multiply
Portal from which to exit the reservoir
Means of transmission
Portal of entry into new host; ex: inhale, swallowing, injected, etc.
Susceptible new host

7

Something that infiltrates another living thing

Infectious agent

8

Any person, animal, plant, soil, or substance in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiples

Reservoir/environment

9

Site through which microorganisms exit/enter the susceptible host and cause disease/infection; ex: mouth, nose, urinary tract, etc.

Portal

10

Infectious agent moves from source to host

Transmission

11

2 types of transmission

Direct
Indirect

12

Disease causing microorganisms pass from actual contact with the infected individual; ex: someone sneezes on you

Direct transmission

13

Susceptible person is infected from contact with a contaminated surface/object; ex: needle stick

Indirect transmission

14

Minute, single-cell organism with no nucleus; contains RNA and DNA
Can adapt

Bacteria

15

3 classifications of bacteria based on shape/appearance

Cocci
Bacilli
Spirilla

16

Cocci

Spherical

17

Bacilli

Oblong

18

Spirilla

Spiral

19

3 classifications of bacteria based on groups

Diplococci
Streptococci
Staphylococci

20

Groups of two

Diplococci

21

Streptococci

Chains

22

Irregular clusters, hanging grape-like bunches

Staphylococci

23

4 examples of bacteria

Diphtheria
Tuberculosis (TB)
Streptococcal infections
Chlamydia STD, etc.

24

Some have both yeast and mold characteristics
Usually reproduce by budding/spores
Thrive in dark, damp areas
Can be harder to treat
Ex: thrush, vulvovaginitis, etc.

Fungi

25

Vulvovaginitis

Yeast infection

26

2 forms of fungi

Yeast
Mold

27

Single cell fungi

Yeast

28

Miniature cell fungi

Mold

29

Live on or in other organisms at expense of host

Parasites

30

2 types of parasites

Protozoa
Helminths

31

More complex single-cell microorganisms, move by cilia action of flagella
Usually in GI tract in people
Ex: amebiasis, malaria from mosquitos, etc.

Protozoa

32

Infection of intestines by amoeba, usually dysentery from food or drink

Amebiasis

33

Parasitic worms that commonly affect intestinal tract; some can bee seen with naked eye
Ex: ringworm, tapeworm, pinworm, etc.

Helminths

34

Minute microorganisms that cannot be visualized by normal microscope, smallest microorganism to infect man
DNA or RNA
Attack host cell, invades and reproduces, and lies dormant or spreads
Once outside body = die immediately in dry form, wet form = die when exposed to heat, and in blood at 4°C = live a couple weeks
Ex: influenza, common cold, mumps, measles, AIDS/HIV, hepatitis A, B, and C, etc.

Viruses

35

4 microorganisms

Bacteria
Fungi
Parasites
Viruses

36

4 stages in the process of infection

Incubation period
Prodromal
Disease period
Convalescence period

37

Pathogen enters body and microbes start reproducing; disease process beginning

Incubation period

38

More specific symptoms of disease starting, microorganisms increase, and disease is highly infectious

Prodromal

39

Signs and symptoms reach full extent, when disease is most communicable

Disease period

40

Symptoms diminish and disappear, can go latent and come back again; ex: herpes, malaria, TB, gonorrhea, etc.

Convalescence period

41

2 tiers of precautions from CDC (1996)

Tier 1: standard precautions
Tier 2: transmission based precautions

42

Treat every patient as though they're infected; use all the time, regardless of diagnosis
Refers to blood, open wounds, secretions (not sweat)/body fluids, intact skin/abrasions, mucous membranes, etc.

Standard precautions

43

Restrictions used when called for; ex: TB, GI, etc.

Transmission based precautions

44

3 types of disease transmission by government and 2 more (5 total)

Air: government
Droplet: government
Contact: government
Common vehicle
Vector-borne (ex: mosquito)

45

5 recommended vaccines for health care workers

Hepatitis B
Influenza
Varicella/chickenpox
Pertussis, tetanus, and diphtheria
Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR)

46

5 transmission routes

Contact
Droplet
Common vehicle
Airborne
Vectorborne

47

Most common transmission route, direct or indirect

Contact

48

Rapid transfer of infectious agent through air over short distance; ex: sneeze

Droplet

49

Inanimate object involved in transmission of disease; ex: food, water, medicines, equipment, supplies, etc.

Fomite
Common vehicle

50

Infectious agent disseminated through air over a long distance, 6 feet to miles away

Airborne

51

Vector transports infectious agent to host; ex: fly, mosquito, etc.

Vectorborne

52

Animal that carries and transmits a pathogen capable of causing disease

Vector

53

Needle sticks account for ___% of job-related acquired HIV; never __________

84%, never recap

54

8 techniques for infection control

Handwashing proper/best way to prevent disease; up to 40-60 seconds with aseptic technique
Dress for the workplace: no jewelry, long or fake nails, etc.
Hair short or pulled back
Gloves
Eye protection
Laundry
Cleaning and proper waste disposal
Disinfection

55

Condition free from germs

Asceptic

56

Process that reduces microbial life forms
Process of cleaning, especially with a chemical, in order to destroy bacteria

Disinfection/-ants

57

10 parts of standard precautions

Hand hygiene
Gloves
Mask, eye protection, and face shield
Gown
Needlestick safety
Patient care equipment
Environmental control
Linen
Occupation health and bloodborne pathogens
Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette

58

6 isolation techniques used when a patient is known to have a disease that is contagious

Drainage-secretion precautions
Enteric precautions
Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) isolation
Respiratory isolation
Contact isolation
Strict isolation

59

Prevent infections that are transmitted by direct or indirect contact with purulent patient material, drainage, or secretions from an infected site on the body such as abscesses, wound infections, and burns; ex: MRSA
Gown, gloves, dressings bagged in proper containers, 3 minute hand scrubbing for asepsis, separate trash (incinerate infected object)

Drainage-secretion precautions

60

Prevent infections that are transmitted by direct or indirect contact with fecal material
Bowel, colon, etc.
Dysentery, cholera, etc.
Private room/bathroom, gowns, and gloves

Enteric precautions

61

Help with privacy, used with pulmonary TB who currently have a positive sputum culture for acid fast bacilli or a chest x-ray that reflects active TB (airborne)
Fitted mask, gowns if gross contamination, gloves, and private room with special ventilation closed door

Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) isolation

62

Isolation technique when spread by droplet contact as patient talks, coughs, or sneezes
Meningitis, flu, measles, mumps, etc.
Private room, masks, gowns, and gloves

Respiratory isolation

63

Used for diseases spread by close or direct contact, present microbes
Indirect: infected person touches object or not infected person, fomite
Acute respiratory infection pneumonia, etc/.
Masks, gowns, gloves, and private room

Contact isolation

64

Used for patients with diseases transported by airborne or contact route, highly infectious and spread is hard to control
Combination of protective and reverse isolation
Pharyngeal diphtheria (throat), plaque, chickenpox, etc.
Negative pressure room, mask, gown, gloves, hand washing and decontamination of items, and private room or with patient who has disease

Strict isolation

65

Isolation for immunocompromised patient
Negative pressure room

Reverse isolation

66

Process that destroys all microbial life forms including resistant spores, done by physical or chemical process

Sterilization

67

3 levels of disinfectants

High-level disinfection (HLD)
Intermediate-level disinfection
Low-level disinfection

68

Eliminates all microbial forms when there's a high level of bacterial spores, ex: anthrax

High-level disinfection (HLD)

69

Kills TB bacteria, most viruses, fungi, but not bacterial spores

Intermediate-level disinfection

70

Sanitation; activates most bacteria, some viruses, and fungi, doesn't work against TB or bacterial spores

Low-level disinfection

71

Antimicrobial substance on skin surface

Antiseptic

72

4 vital/cardinal signs

Body temperature
Pulse
Respiration
Blood pressure (BP)

73

Brain can't survive/function for ___-___ minutes without oxygen

4-5 minutes

74

Result from metabolic activity must be stable in order for the body's cellular and enzymatic activity to remain efficient

Temperature

75

Fever leads to increased pulse and respiration, general discomfort, achiness, flush, dry skin that feels hot, chills, loss of appetite, etc.

Pyrexia

76

Excessively high temperature of 105.8°F or 41°C

Hyperpyrexic

77

Temperature less than 34°C, death

Hypopyrexic

78

___-___°F for open heart surgery

92-92.5°F

79

Celsius (C) to fahrenheit (F) and fahrenheit to celsius conversion

C = (F-32)5/9
F = (9/5)C + 32

80

Average temperature and variance, 3 months to 3 years, and 5 years to 13 years

Average and variance: 98.6°F or 37°C, most people vary by 0.5-1°
3 months to 3 years: 99-99.7°F
5 years to 13 years: 97.8-98.6°F

81

5 methods for temperature taking

Oral
Axillary
Rectal
Tympanic
Temporal

82

Average oral (time), axillary (time), rectal temperature

Oral: 37°C or 98.6°F, 3-5 minutes
Axillary: 36.4-36.7°C or 97.6-96°F; 5-10 minutes, not as accurate
Rectal: 37.5°C or 99.6°F

83

Most accurate temperature taking method in pelvic viscera

Rectal

84

Number of heart beats

Pulse

85

Normal pulse for men and women at rest, infants, and children 4-10 years old

Men and women at rest: 60-90 beats/minute
Infants: 120 bpm
Children 4-10 years old: 90-100 bpm

86

Fast/rapid heartbeat over 100 bpm

Tachycardia

87

Heartbeat under 60 bpm

Bradycardia

88

Most accurate point to get pulse for infants/kids
At apex of heart

Apical

89

9 pulse points

Apical
Radial
Carotid
Femoral
Popliteal
Temporal
Dorsals
Post-tibial artery pulse
Brachial artery pulse

90

Purpose is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide (CO2) between the environment and the circulating blood
Look for quality of breath and symmetrical rise and fall of chest

Respiration

91

Normal respiration

12-20 breaths per minute

92

______ blood has oxygen; _______ lack oxygen and has carbon dioxide but _______ vein has oxygen

Arterial
Venous
Pulmonary

93

Amount of blood flow ejected from the left ventricle of the heart during systole and the amount of resistance the blood meets due to systemic vascular resistance, volume to resistance
Blood loss due to hemorrhage = lower
Generally lower in morning, men's usually slightly higher

Blood pressure (BP)

94

Normal, pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension BP

Normal: less than 120/less than 80 mmHg
Pre: 120-139/80-89 mmHg
1: 140-159/90-99 mmHg
2: 160 or more/100 or more mmHg

95

Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

Pulse pressure

96

Normal systolic and diastolic pressure

Systolic: 110-140 mmHg, 120 or less
Diastolic: 60-80 mmHg

97

BP when the heart is contracting, maximum arterial pressure
Highest part reached, active/beating portion
Top number over diastolic

Systolic

98

Minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilation of ventricles of heart when they fill with blood; resting, lowest point
Minimum pressure exerted at arterial walls
Bottom number under systolic

Diastolic

99

Volume of blood pumped from left ventricle per beat; 120/80 = 40

Stroke volume (SV)

100

3 pieces of equipment for BP

Sphygmomanometer
BP cuff
Stethoscope

101

Mercury more _______, digital more _______

Accurate, common

102

Helps patient who isn't getting enough oxygen
The effectiveness of pulmonary function, the lungs ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently, is most accurately measured by laboratory testing of arterial blood for the concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, acidity, and the saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen

Oxygen therapy

103

Using light, measures the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin in blood in pulsating vessels, especially the capillaries of finger or ear

Pulse oximeter (ox)

104

5 methods of oxygen therapy delivery

Nasal cannula
Nasal catheter
Face mask
Nonrebreathing mask
Oxygen tent

105

Amount of oxygen delivered with nasal cannula (adults, kids, and percent oxygen), catheter, face mask, and nonrebreathing mask

Cannula: 1-6 liters (L)/min adults, 1/4-1/2 L/min; 21-60%
Catheter: 1-6 L/min
Face mask: no less than 5 L/min, shorter time periods
Nonrebreathing mask: up to 100% oxygen by preventing CO2 from getting back into system

106

French-tipped catheter in pharynx, can get stomach distension if misplaced

Nasal catheter

107

Oxygen therapy for kids, preemies because lungs are last organs to develop in kids

Oxygen tent

108

___% oxygen in air

21%

109

2 hazards of oxygen administration

Fire: avoid sparks or flames
Parenchymal lung damage if patient goes on 100% all the time, want to use lowest level possible; short-term (bronchitis, etc.) may be reversible

110

Scale of 3-15 helps identify patient's level of consciousness
7 or less means danger and if this happens, notify doctor and take patient to ER if necessary but never leave patient

Glasgow coma scale

111

On their own

Spontaneously

112

Physiological reaction due to sickness/illness, trauma, high stress emotional situation/disturbance, etc.; usually seen in young or elderly and can occur quickly

Shock

113

7 shock symptoms

Decreased temperature
Weak pulse
Rapid heartbeat
Shallow respirations
Hypotension
Cyanosis
Increased thirst

114

Sign of respiratory distress; bluish discoloration around mouth, gums, nailbeds, earlobes, etc.
Skin turns blue/purple due to lack of oxygenated blood; usually seen in extremities, nail beds, etc.

Cyanosis

115

Shock gets worse if not taken care of

Shock continuum

116

3 stages of shock continuum

Compensatory
Progressive
Irreversible

117

First stage of shock, body's homeostatic mechanisms attempt to maintain CO2, BP, and tissue perfusion

Compensatory stage

118

Compensatory mechanisms begin failing to meet tissue metabolic needs, and the shock cycle is perpetuated/gets worse

Progressive stage

119

5 symptoms of the compensatory stage of shock continuum

Cold and clammy skin
Decreased urine output
Increased respirations and anxiety, may begin to be uncooperative
Hypoactive bowel sounds
Normal BP

120

7 symptoms of the progressive stage of shock continuum

BP falls
Rapid and shallow respirations
Acute respiration distress syndrome/shock lung
Tachycardia results; increased heart rate may be 150 bpm
Chest pain (CP)
Mental status changes beginning with subtle behavior alterations such as confusion with progression to lethargy and loss of consciousness
Renal, hepatic, GI, and hematologic problems

121

Shock becomes unresponsive to therapy; causes of shock can't be fixed, organs fail, and death occurs

Irreversible stage

122

3 symptoms of the irreversible stage of shock continuum

BP remains low
Renal and liver failure result
Release of necrotic tissue toxins (causes necrosis of tissue) and an overwhelming lactic acidosis

123

Severe pulmonary edema results from leakage of fluid from the pulmonary capillaries

Acute respiration distress syndrome/shock lung

124

Buildup of lactate in body, resulting in excessively low pH in bloodstream; blood becomes more acidic

Lactic acidosis

125

Shock caused by abnormally low volume of circulating blood in the body, blood/fluid loss
15-20% decrease or by a loss of 750-1300 mL of fluid
Signs and symptoms may be placed into classes of I-IV
Restlessness, thirst, cold, clammy skin, sweating, cyanotic lips and nails, rapid respirations, systolic pressure less than 60-90 mmHg, anuria, and cardiac and respiratory failure will follow
Notify physician, make sure patient can breath, have emergency cart present, be ready to give oxygen, don't leave patient, don't give fluids unless doctor says to because examinations to see cause need empty stomach, etc.

Hypovolemic shock

126

Absence of urine

Anuria

127

Blood loss of 15%

Class I hypovolemic shock

128

5 symptoms of class I hypovolemic shock

BP within normal limits
Heart rate less than 100 bpm
Slightly anxious patient
Respiration range from 14-20 per minute
Urine output within normal limits

129

Blood loss of 15-30%

Class II hypovolemic shock

130

5 symptoms of class II hypovolemic shock

BP within normal limits
Heart rate greater than 100 bpm (exceeds normal limits)
Increasingly anxious patient
Respiration range from 20-30 per minute (exceeds normal limits)
Urine output decreases

131

Blood loss of 30-40%

Class III hypovolemic shock

132

5 symptoms of class III hypovolemic shock

BP decreases to below normal limits
Heart rate greater than 120 bpm
Anxious and confused patient
Respiration increases up to 30-40 per minute
Urine output is greatly decreased

133

Blood loss of more than 40%

Class IV hypovolemic shock

134

5 symptoms of class IV hypovolemic shock

Systolic BP decreases from 90 to 60 mmHg
Heart rate greater than 140 bpm with weak and thready pulse (hard to find because heart beating so fast to get fluid to body and heart overworking itself)
Confused and lethargic patient
Respiration greater than 40 per minute
Urine output further diminishes or ceases

135

Caused by a failure of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the vital organs
Usually in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac tamponade, or pulmonary embolus
Chest pain, restlessness, decreasing BP, cyanosis, irregular and slow pulse, and rapid changes in level of consciousness
Call for assistance, notify physician, place them in Fowler's position, keep warm and quiet, vitals, no food or drink, oxygen, don't leave patient alone, possible IV fluids and medications (physician), and be ready for CPR

Cardiogenic shock

136

Compression of heart by an accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac

Cardiac tamponade

137

Feet about 45-60° lower than head

Fowler's position

138

Abnormal distribution of blood flow in the smallest blood vessels results in pooling of blood in vessels and inadequate supply of blood to body's tissues and organs

Distributive shock

139

3 types of distributive shock

Neurogenic
Septic
Anaphylactic

140

Occurs when concussion, spinal cord injury, psychic trauma, or spinal anesthesia causes abnormal dilation of the peripheral blood vessels; causes fall in BP as blood pools in veins, mental disorder, aggravating emotional situation, etc.
Vasodilators stop contracting
Hypotension, warm dry skin, visible signs of poor tissue perfusion, cool extremities, and diminishing peripheral pulses
Notify physician, assistance, keep patient flat, monitor vitals every 5 minutes, don't move if there's a spinal injury, oxygen, IV fluids and medications, etc.

Neurogenic shock

141

Caused by severe systemic infections and bacteria; caused by gram negative bacteria (most common), gram positive bacteria, and viruses
Body's immune system responds and releases chemicals
Place patient supine/flat, calm and quiet, don't leave alone, cover patient if they feel warm, give oxygen, IV fluids and medications, etc.

Septic shock

142

2 phases of septic shock

Early/first phase
Late/second phase

143

6 symptoms of early/first phase septic shock

Warm and flushed skin
Urine output normal to excessive
Increased heart and respiratory rate
Nausea and vomiting (N&V)
Possible confusion

144

6 symptoms of late/second phase septic shock

Abrupt decrease in level of consciousness
Decrease in urine output
Cold and clammy skin
Seizures
Cardiorespiratory failure
Rapide heart and respiratory rate

145

Similar to neurogenic shock; result of exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to an antigen that was previously encountered by the body's immune system, drug reaction
Varies with time of onset: mild within two hours, moderate more rapid, and severe = abrupt
Mild to severe: tightness in chest, itching at site of injection, nasal congestion, sneezing, choking, decreasing BP, dilated pupils, seizures, and respiratory and cardiac arrest
Keep emergency cart available, get history (allergies, GFR, creatinine, BUN, etc.), etc.

Anaphylactic shock

146

4 major types of diabetes mellitus

Type 1
Type 2
Diabetes mellitus associated with or produced by other medical conditions or syndromes
Gestational diabetes

147

Disease in which the body's ability to produce or respond to insulin hormone impaired

Diabetes mellitus

148

Insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by autoimmune process; pancreas produces little or no insulin
Usually under 30, abrupt onset
Must receive insulin injections
Not preventable or curative

Type 1 diabetes mellitus/insulin-dependent

149

Inherited metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with resistance to ketosis
Usually over 40, gradual onset
Results from an impaired sensitivity to insulin or from a decreased production of insulin
Controlled by diet, exercise, and weight loss
Can be cured/fixed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

150

Occurs in later months of pregnancy and is caused by hormones secreted by the placenta that prevent the action of insulin, treatment with diet but may need insulin

Gestational diabetes

151

3 diabetic emergencies

Hypoglycemia
Ketoacidosis
Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome

152

Low blood sugar, high insulin; sugar less than 50-60 mg/deciliter (dL)
Occurs when persons who have diabetes mellitus have an excess amount of insulin in their bloodstream, an increased rate of glucose, or inadequate food intake with which to use the insulin
Mild tremors, sweating, dizziness, headache, disorientation, and impaired motor function (drastic)

Hypoglycemia

153

Normal sugar levels, what happens when it's less than 40 mg/dL (3), and over 90 mg/dL (3)

Normal: 70-90 mg/dL
<40: kidney disease, hypopituitarism and -insulinism, etc.
>90: diabetes mellitus with high blood sugar and hyperthyroid- and -pituitarism

154

Occurs when there's an insufficient insulin in the body, associated with hyperglycemia
Body breaks down/uses stored fats and muscle instead of glucose
Weakness, drowsiness, sweet odor to breath, warm dry skin, flushed face, tachycardia, and coma
Check chart for diagnosis of diabetes, notify physician, call for assistance, monitor vitals, don't leave patient, administer oxygen and IV, etc.

Ketoacidosis

155

High sugar, low insulin

Hyperglycemia

156

Occurs due to the loss of effective insulin, leading to diuresis and loss of fluid and electrolytes
Insulin not working; secondary to acute illness, ex: NPO for a long time period
Often appear to be drunk or have had a stroke, dehydration, dry skin, hypotension, tachycardia, mental confusion, seizures, and stroke
Call for assistance

Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome

157

Caused by an occlusion of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus or thrombi that originates in the venous circulation
Usually associated with trauma, surgery, pregnancy, and immobility
Sudden onset of symptoms: CP, dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, syncope, coma
Moves = death
Blood thinners, call for help, notify physician, monitor vitals, and don't leave them alone

Pulmonary embolus

158

Inadequate gas exchange by respiratory system; many causes by obstruction such as tongue, vomit, injury, etc.

Respiratory failure

159

Heart stops beating

Cardiac arrest

160

3 steps of CPR (get help)

Circulation
Airway: make sure it's clear
Breathing

161

Tilt chin up to open airway and watch for bilateral rise and fall of chest; mouth to mouth, mask, or bag

Breathing

162

Compressions on hard, flat surface; 1.5-2 inches deep

Circulation

163

CPR: ___ compressions and ___ breaths

30, 2

164

Caused by occlusion or rupture of the cerebral blood supply directly into the brain tissue or into the subarachnoid space
Severe headache, eye deviation, difficult speech, ataxia, loss of consciousness, N&V, stiff neck, and paralysis on one side of body
Call for aid, put patient in resting position with head slightly elevated, monitor vitals, ready to give IV, oxygen and CPR if patient stops breathing, etc.

Cerebrovascular attack/stroke

165

Loss of coordination

Ataxia

166

Caused by insufficient supply of blood to the brain; heart disease, hunger, poor ventilation, fatigue, emotional shock are all causes
Cold clammy skin, tachycardia, dizzy, nausea, pallor, hyperpnea
Trendelenburg

Fainting/syncope

167

Increased depth and rate of breathing

Hyperpnea

168

Loss of pigmentation/color

Pallor

169

Head lower than feet

Trendelenburg

170

Unsystematic discharge of neurons of the cerebrum that results in an abrupt alteration in brain function in brain function
Can be caused by infectious disease, high fever, extreme stress, head trauma, and brain tumors
No driving

Convulsive seizures

171

Whole body convulses and the patient loses consciousness for a period of minutes
Muscles become rigid, eyes open, jerky body movement, vomiting, frothy saliva, urinary or fecal incontinence, usually fall asleep following seizure because muscles are tense the entire time

Grand mal

172

May be restricted to a specific part of the brain, patient is not responsive to the environment although appears to be awake
Lasts 1-4 minutes
Lip smacking, chewing and facial grimacing, patting, picking, and rubbing one's clothing, and confusion for several minutes following seizure

Partial seizure

173

2 types of convulsive seizures

Grand mal/generalize seizure
Partial seizure

174

Partial seizure that is so brief that an observer may not be aware that it has occurred, harder to control medically; rare in adults
A brief loss of awareness, blank stare, eye blinking, mild body movements, and sudden loss of all muscle tone resulting in afall

Petit mal/absence seizure

175

Have hollow lumen so secretions and air may be evacuated/suctioned or medications, nourishment, or contrast agents may be administered
Made of polyurethane silicone rubber
Placed in nose or mouth
Must be in place before any medication, for, water or contrast is given

Nasogastric (NG) and nasoenteric (NE) tubes

176

Short-term tube that can be placed by nurse

Nasogastric (NG) tube

177

Allows peristalsis to pass through into duodenum and small intestine
Long-term, weeks to months
Placed by physician

Nasoenteric (NE) tube

178

3 ways to tell if Nasogastric (NG) and nasoenteric (NE) tubes are properly placed

Radiographic film
Fluoroscopy
Aspirate gastric contents and test on litmus paper, gastric contents are acidic; pH less than 7

179

Max suction on adults, older kids, and infants

Adults: 110-150 mmHg
Kids: 100-120 mmHg
Infants: 50-95 mmHg

180

Temporary or permanent tube that is directly into the stomach through an incision
Usually when esophagus is blocked or cannot go through nose or mouth
Patient sedated and endoscope used to verify placement

Gastrostomy tube

181

An opening into the trachea created surgically either to relieve respiratory distress caused by obstruction of the upper airway or to improve respiratory function by permitting better access of air to the lower respiratory tract
Usually plastic or metal
Disease in head and neck
Difficulty speaking or fear of choking; keep in Fowler's position

Tracheostomy

182

2 signs for emergency suctioning

Audible rattling or gurgling sounds coming from the patient's throat
Gagging or breathing with difficulty

183

Usually used for hemothorax, pneumothorax, or pleural effusion
Tube inserted into the pleural cavity and attached to water-sealed drainage to remove air and fluid from intrapleural space

Chest tube

184

Blood in pleural cavity doesn't allow lung to expand

Hemothorax

185

Air/gas in cavity between lung and chest wall, causing lung to collapse

Pneumothorax

186

Excess fluid/water that accumulates in pleural cavity

Pleural effusion

187

Component of chest tube that keeps atmospheric air from getting back into lung

Water seal

188

Clamp ______________ tube when transporting patient, never clamp ________________

Nasogastric (NG) and nasoenteric (NE) tubes
Chest tube

189

Drains placed at or near wound sites or operative sites when large amounts of drainage are expected, done due to fluid interfering with healing process because the fluid is absorbed slowly by body
Place with aseptic technique to prevent infection
Ex: hip and spine surgery

Tissue drains

190

4 examples of tissue drains

T-tube for gallbladder surgery attached to common bile duct
Penrose
Jackson-Pratt
Hemovac

191

Drain placed in wound after mastectomy, neck surgery, etc. and allows gravity to pull fluid

Penrose drain

192

3 diseases requiring airborne precautions

Measles
Varicella (including disseminated zoster)
TB

193

6 diseases requiring droplet precautions

Diphtheria
Pertussis
Pneumonic plague
Mumps
Rubella
Influenza