Quiz 3 (Continued) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3 (Continued) Deck (30)
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1

Mineral

Naturally occurring crystalline solid.

2

Rock

An aggregate of one or more minerals.

3

Lava

Magma (molten material) on earth's surface

4

Where do pyroclastic rocks/tuff/ash form?

Where magma explodes violently into atmosphere and falls back to ground

5

Felsic composition vs Mafic composition?

Felsic: Lighter in color

Mafic: Darker in color

6

Extrusive vs. intrusive?

Extrusive: Volcanic. Aphanitic texture (small crystals, glassy, rapid cooling)

Intrusive: plutonic. Phaneritic texture (large crystals due to slow cooling)

7

What type of rock do we see most?

Sedimentary (75%) they're at the top

Igneous (25%) in bedrock (mostly)

8

Compaction

Tighter packing of sedimentary grains causing weak lithification and a decrease in void space (holes), usually from weight of overlying sediment

9

Cementation

Process by which clastic sediment is lithified by precipitation of mineral cement, such as calcite cement, among the grains of the sediment

10

Pathways common with sedimentary rocks

Erosion

Deposition

Compaction

Cementation

Lithification

11

Classic sedimentary rocks

Composed of minerals and rock fragments that are:
-incompletely weathered or I weathered (immature sediments)
-relatively stable with respect to weathering (mature sediments)


Classified based on:
-clast size (clay-silt-sand-pebble) and shape (roundness)
-mineral and/or lithic clast type

12

Types of channels?

Straight

Meandering

Braided

13

Sheetflow (overland flow)?

Surface water that flows unconfined over the land

14

Stream/river

Flowing water confined to a channel

15

Runoff?

Movement of land water to oceans

Sheetflow and streamflow together.

16

A small, medium, and large river move at same flow rate. Which one have highest discharge?

Biggest one.

17

Bar

An elevated region of sediment (such as sand or gravel) that has been deposited by the flow.

18

How fast can rivers change shape?

Many times throughout one person's life. Doesn't take millions of years.

19

Sources of energy for hydrologic cycle?

Sun

Gravity

20

Sublimation

Freezing

Melting

Solid to gas

Liquid to solid

Solid to liquid

21

What are the effects of climate change?

Change in precipitation

Influences plants and animals that live in freshwater lakes and rivers, altering their habitat and possibly bringing life-threatening stress and disease

Challenges for flood control and river

22

What can we do about floods?

1) engineering approach to control flooding

2) regulatory approach designed to decrease vulnerability to flooding

3) preparedness by predicting and forecasting flood times and locations

4) education of the public

23

Flood watch

High flow or overflow of water from river is possible in given time period.

Can apply to heavy runoff or drainage of water into low-lying areas

Generally issued for flooding that's expected to occur at least 6 hours after heavy rains have ended

Don't have to leave but get prepared

24

Flood warning

Occurring or is imminent in warning area

25

Flash flood watch

Flash flooding is possible in or close to watch area

Generally issued for flooding that's expected to occur within 6 hours after heavy rains ended

26

Flash flood warning

Is actually occur in or is imminent in warning area

Can be issued as result of torrential rains, fam failure, or ice jam

27

Coastal flood watch

Possibility exists for the inundation of land areas along coast within next 12-36 hours

28

Coastal flood warning

Land areas along coast are expected to become, or are, inundated by water above typical tide action

29

Channelization advantages and disadvantages

A: make stream more suitable for navigation

Restrict water to certain area of stream's natural bottom lands so bulk of such lands can be made available for agriculture

Flood control

D: loss of wetlands

Straightening causes streams to flow more rapidly, which can cause increase in soil erosion

Can also increase flooding downstream from channelized area with net effect

30

Type of weather pattern associated with heavy rain in Vegas

Warm humid air meets cool air