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Flashcards in Quiz 3 - Neuro II Deck (60)
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1

Generalized Seizures are correlated with?

metabolic disturbances
complete LOC
- seizure activity involving ENTIRE brain, entire cortex of both hemispheres

2

what are the 5 generalized seizures

infantile spasms (RARE)
absence seizures (Petit Mal)
tonic-clonic seizures (Grand Mal)
atonic seizures
myoclonic seizures

3

what are common symptoms of absence seizures?

no falling or convulsing
neuro and cognitive exams are usually normal

4

what are common symptoms of tonic clonic seizures (grand mal seizures)

begin with OUTCRY, LOC, falling.
NO AURA

5

what are common symptoms of typical absence seizures?

no falling or convulsing
eyelid fluttering (sometimes)
staring vacantly
neuro and cognitive exams are usually normal

usually 4-12 yr old w. FHx

6

partial seizures are characterized by?

- involvement of one cerebral cortex
- often from structural abnormalities

7

what are the types of partial seizures, what do they indicate and what is 100% mandatory?!

Types: Motor and Sensory Seizures
Indicate: structural brain disease

the focal onset localizing the lesion: FULL INVESTIGATION IS MANDATORY

8

what are the types of simple partial seizures, what do they indicate and what is 100% mandatory?!

Types: Motor and Sensory Seizures
Indicate: structural brain disease

the focal onset localizing the lesion: FULL INVESTIGATION IS MANDATORY

No LOC

9

Simple Partial Motor Seizures arise where?
What is a Jacksonian Motor seizure?

arise in the frontal motor cortex with movements in the CONTRALATERAL face, trunk or limbs

- Jacksonian motor seizure - a simple partial seizure - march of involuntary muscle movement from one muscle group to the next

10

what are the types of simple partial seizures, what do they indicate and what is 100% mandatory?! KNOW THIS

Types: Motor and Sensory Seizures
Indicate: structural brain disease

the focal onset localizing the lesion: FULL INVESTIGATION IS MANDATORY

No LOC

11

Simple Partial Sensory Seizures present how?

parasthesias or tingling in an extremity or face sometimes associated with a distortion of body image

12

Complete partial seizures originate where?

temporal lobe

- reduced but NOT complete LOC

13

ssx of partial seizures, in general what should be expected?

preceded by an aura
1-2 min duration

14

What are common causes of brain abscess?

direct extension of cranial infections:
- mastoiditis
- sinusitis

15

ssx of partial seizures, in general what should be expected?

MAY BE preceded by an aura
1-2 min duration
followed by post-ictal state - sleepy, HA, confusion, soreness

16

what is the etiology of encephalitis?

direct viral invasion
(mosquito transmission, HSV, HIV)

17

what is helpful in dx of rabies?

suspected in ptsd with encephalitis or ASCENDING PARALYSIS and recent HX of animal bite or bat exposure

18

what imaging would be ordered for imaging of suspected seizure patients?

EEG
- critical for dx, but normal EEG cannot necessarily r/o seizure

19

what are 6 brain infections an individual can get?

brain abscess
encephalitis
rabies
helminthic brain infections
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
subdural empyema

20

what is the definition of prion disease?

progressive, FATAL, and UNTREATABLE BRAIN DISORDERS

21

DX brain infections by?

MRI - multifocal, non-enhancing lesions w.o mass effect
CSF - look for JC virus DNA

22

KNOW - What is the common etiology of subdural empyema?

SINUSITIS
Ear infections

23

what are ssx of prion disease?

ssx:
- memory loss
- confusion
- ataxia
- startle myoclonus (provoked by noise or stimuli)

24

how is Creutfeldt-Jakob Disease dxd?

Suspect in elderly patients with RAPIDLY progressing dementia, esp if accompanied by ataxia or myoclonus

25

what are the ssx of meningitis?

headache
fever
nuchal rigidity (this may or may not be present)

26

a patient ptc with 3-5 days of progressive malaise, fever, irritability, vomiting.. what condition is this and what may develop?

acute bacterial meningitis

meningeal sx may develop such as:
fever, HA, seizures (40% kiddos)

27

how is acute bacterial meningitis dxd?

CSF
- increased WBCs (PMNs - highly active neutrophils), protein and decreased glucose

28

what are common causes of viral meningitis?

enterovirus (MOST COMMON)
or HSV

29

how is viral meningitis dxd?

CSF
- increased WBC (lymphocytes), protein is slightly increased, less than bacterial, and glucose is generally normal, or slightly decreased

30

which virus is most commonly the cause for recurrent meningitis?

HSV