Quiz 4 Flashcards Preview

Geology > Quiz 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 4 Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
0

compaction and cementation of grains occurs during _______

lithification

1

the majority of the rocks that occur at the surface of earth are _____

sedimentary rocks

2

lithified detritus (breakdown products of preexisting rocks ) forms which kind of sedimentary rock?

clastic

3

the removal of detritus from weathered rock at an outcrop is termed ____

erosion

4

the breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed ______

weathering

5

which transport medium carries the largest particles

ice

6

it is unusual for _____ to carry grains larger than sand

wind

7

the difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate ______

possesses more rounded grains than breccia

8

grains become rounded primarily during ______

erosion/transportation

9

chemical weathering takes place most rapidly in environments that are _______ and ______

warm and wet

10

clastic sedimentary rocks are primarily classified on the basis of ______

grain size

11

physical precipitation of gypsum due to evaporation of seawater produces which kind of sedimentary rock?

chemical

12

as compared to arkose, quartz sandstone _______

is more mature
does not contain significant amounts of feldspar
is likely to be found farther away from weathering granitic source rock

13

stratification refers to ______

the development of layering within sedimentary rocks

14

geologists call individual layers of sedimentary rocks _______, whereas several of them together are calledd _____

beds; strata

15

distinct internal laminations that are inclined at an angle to the boundary of the main sedimentary layers are called ______

cross beds

16

if evidence of cross bedding was discovered on a barren planet such as mars, what could you assume was once occurring on the planet?

movement of water

17

graded beds tell a geologist that a _______

turbidity current deposited these beds, depositing coarser material first

18

waves cause beach sand to be ______

well rounded and poorly sorted

19

diagenesis refers to _______

physical and chemical alterations, including compaction and cementation, that occur as sediment is transformed into rock

20

a fine grained clastic rock that splits into thin sheets is ________

shale

21

two major sources of energy, coal and oil shale, are considered ______ sedimentary rocks

organic

22

biochemical limestones are dominated by carbonate mud and fragments of ______

calcitic and aragonitic (carbonate) skeletons of marine invertebrates

23

if water is the transport mechanism of sediment, the grain size of sedimentary deposits most closely indicates the ______

velocity of the water at the moment the sediment settled to the bottom

24

if a geologist found preserved mud cracks in a rock, he or she could conclude that the environment in which they formed _______

was once covered in wet mud
was once covered in hexagonal plates of mud with curled up edges
has been covered in sediment

25

glacial till is composed of _____ sized particles

clay to gravel