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Do endotoxins have a local and specific effect?

Nope. Endotoxins have a general systemic effect. Includes fever, DIC, hemorrhage.


If a dog has mange, what is a likely secondary infection?

Mange can be caused by Demodex canis. A secondary staphylococcus infection can develop because it is opportunistic to the mange.


What can cause mange?

Demodex canis


What is pyoderma?

A pyogenic (pus causing) skin disease.


What causes "Greasy Pig Disease" in pigs?



What causes "Strangles" in animals?



Is "Strangles" confined to horses?



Why is Enterococcus uniquely difficult to treat?

Enterococcus causes diarrhea and is usually multi-drug resistant! (VRE = Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci)


What causes caseous lymphadenitis & pyelonephritis (aka kidney infection)?

Corynebacterium (pseudotuberculosis or renale group)


What causes endocarditis in dogs?



What causes "Diamond Skin Disease" in pigs?

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae


An animal with head tilt may be suffering from what pathogen?



How can Listeria present?

Listeria can present as a frank infection that includes diarrhea & then a minority of cases show neurological signs with head tilt, ears down, and eye half open.


What causes foal pneumonia with a case fatality rate as high as 50%?



What causes "limberneck" in birds?

Clostridial infections can be either histo-toxic or neuro-toxic. "Limberneck" occurs in birds that eat fish that have botulism toxin in them (neuro-toxic).


What causes "Lumpy Jaw" in cattle?

Actinomyces bovis


What is the pathogenesis of Actinomycosis?

Actinomycosis or "Lumpy Jaw" produces immovable hard swellings on the upper and lower jawbones of cattle, commonly at the central molar level. It is caused by Actinomyces bovis when the bacteria invades tissue through breaks in the lining of the mouth caused by eating rough forage. The tumor-like swellings develop slowly & may take several months to reach a noticeable size. The lumps consist of honeycombed masses of thin bone with yellow pus. If neglected, the swellings may become very large and in advanced cases, openings develop and discharge small amounts of sticky pus containing gritty yellow granules.


What causes "rain rot"?

Dermatophilus is associated with "rain scald," "lumpy wool" & strawberry foot rot.


If a human is bitten by a cat, what is the most likely infection that can follow in the bit human?

Pasteurella multicoda


What is Pasteurella multicoda?

It is in the oral cavities of cats (& dogs) and can get passed onto (& into!) humans in the form of a bite; it causes wound infection. Pasteurella species are commonly isolated pathogens in most animal bites, especially in dog and cat-related injuries. Pasteurella multicoda often exists as a commensal in the upper respiratory tracts or many animals. In fact, they are some of the most prevalent commensal bacteria present in domestic and wild animals worldwide. Pasteurella multicoda infection in humans is often associated with an animal bite, scratch, or lick.


What is a causative bacterial agent of "Shipping Fever"?

Mannheimia haemolytica is part of the Pasteruellaceae Family.


What is "Shipping Fever"?

It is enzootic pneumonia of calves which refers to infectious respiratory disease. Enzootic pneumonia is primarily a problem in calves less than 6 months of age with peak occurence from 2-10 weeks of age, but can be seen in calves up to 1 year of age. "Shipping Fever" is more common in dairy than in beef calves and is a common problem in veal calves.


What is the pathogenesis of "Shipping Fever"?

It involves stress and possibly an initial respiratory viral infection followed by a secondary bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract. Stress results from environmental and management factors, including adequate ventilation, continually adding calves to an established group, crowding, and nutritional factors such as poor-quality milk replacers. Partial or complete failure of passive transfer of maternal antibodies is an important host factor related to the development of "Shipping Fever." Any of several viruses may be involved, and a variety of bacteria may be recovered from affected calves. Mycoplasmal and bacterial agents including Pasteurella multicoda, Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis represent the most frequently isolated pathogenic organisms.


What causes atrophic rhinitis?

Pasteurella multicoda and Bordetella bronchiseptica


What is atrophic rhinitis?

It is a widespread and economically important swine disease. It is characterized by atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones, which results in a shortened and deformed snout in sever cases. Pasteurella multicoda toxin and Bordetella bronchiseptica "dermo-necrotic toxin" have been considered to independently or cooperatively disturb the osteogenesis of the turbinate bone by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation &/or stimulating bone resorption by osteoclasts.


What is the causative agent of "Snuffles" in rabbits?

Pasteurella multicoda


What is "Snuffles"?

Snuffles is a general term describing a group of upper respiratory signs in rabbits. While there can be different causes, the most common and generally accepted cause is Pasteurella multicoda. There are several different strains of these gram-negative bacteria and depending on the strain that infects a particular rabbit, the signs can be either mild or severe. Some strains are commonly found in the nasal tract of rabbits, but may not cause infections unless the animal is stressed or has a suppressed immune system.


What are the signs of "Snuffles"?

They can be varied, but are usually associated with the upper respiratory tract. Many infected rabbits will initially develop a watery nasal discharge followed by sneezing and then a thick, whitish to yellowish nasal discharge. These infected rabbits will often make a loud snuffling or snoring sound due to the fluid and mucous in their nasal tracts. Because rabbits groom their faces with their front paws, infected rabbits will often have discharge and mats on the inside of their forepaws.


What can cause cystitis (bladder inflammation) in dogs?



What is Haemophilus associated with?

Cystitis in dogs, and conjunctivitis & septicemia in dogs and cats.