Two antibiotics that can have bad interactions with anesthetics
Aminoglycosides (profound weakness by altering Ca release)
Concerning horse anesthesia:
1) what should be withheld before surgery
2) for how long
1) just food (not water)
2) for 12 hours (longer may prolong recovery)
Most commonly used opioid analgesic in horses
What two types of drugs are combined with a neuroleptanalgesic
sedative/tranquilizer with an opioid
A good drug combination for separation anxiety in mares
Ace + Xylazine
Drug combinations including ____ wouldn’t be ideal for CT because?
Butorphanol; it enhances hearing so horses may become anxious
Which sedative, when combined with butorphanol, induces LESS ataxia
Detomidine (compared to Xylazine)
Which neuroleptanaglesic drug combination can also be given as a CRI?
Detomidine + Butorphanol
3 main effects of Lidocaine
Which drug is commonly used as adjuctive treatment for sepsis and endotoxemia in horses?
How does Lidocaine cause analgesic effects?
Na channel blockade
this is why it’s good for arrhythmias too
On which receptor does Ketamine act to produce its anesthetic/analgesic effects
Typical rate for a Ketamine CRI
Name antagonists for:
1) alpha-2 antagonism (3)
2) Opioids (1)
3) Benzodiazepines (1)
1) yohimbine, Tolazoline, Atipamezole
Unless contraindicated, EVERY horse receives what as part of their anesthetic protocol?
A sign of overdose with GG (Guaifenesin) is?
GG is prepared as a ___% solution; and higher would cause?
5-10% (in dextrose)
Higher than 10% leads to hemolysis
Dosing for inducing with Xylazine-Ketamine in horses?
How does it change for ponies and high-strung horses?
increase Ketamine to 1.25mg/lb for ponies/high strung horses
Which two drugs can be added to the XK protocol in horses? Function of each?
Dizepam–improves muscle relaxation
What is the concentration of equine triple-drip?
What is the maintenance rate for equine triple drip?
1ml/lb/hr (0.004 drops/lb/sec)
A good drug combination for donkeys and mules that aren’t induced by XK
Instead of having a fluorine like sevo, iso has?
Comparing Sevo & Iso:
Even though sevo has a (lower/higher) blood solubility, it doesn’t induce much faster than Iso due to its high ______
sevo has LOWER blood solubility but a HIGHER MAC
*less soluble (good) but less potent (bad)
Concerning witholding of food and water for ruminants, how long is indicated for:
1) small ruminants
2) large ruminants
1) food for 12-24hr; water 8-12hr
2) food for 24-48hr; water for 24hr
3) do NOT fast–get hypoglycemic quickly
Best site for jugular placement in llamas?
Right jugular vein (more superficial)
Describe the sensitivities to xylazine (most to least sensitive)
1) compare goats to sheep
2) compare cattle, horses, llamas, alpacas, and camelids
1) goats more sensitive than sheep
2) Cattle > camelids > horses, llamas > alpacas
Name 3 cattle breeds from most to least sensitive to Xylazine
Brahamns > Hereford > Holstein
To which alpha-2 reversal agent are ruminants and camelids sensitive?
A good drug combination for ruminants to induce recumbency/immobilization but not anesthesia
Diazepam (or Midazolam) + Xylazine
In equines, which drug can be given during recovery following inhalant anesthesia? Why?
Xylazine–helps the horse stay down longer so they stand when fully ready
What position should a horse be recovered in following surgery?
What ever position they were in for surgery
Don’t flip them!!
Name 5 causes of post-anesthetic neuropathy in horses
1) excessive depth of anesthesia
3) poor perfusion/increased pressure on muscle
4) poor positioning
5) inadequate padding
The normal MAP for horses
Moderate hypercapnia can have beneficial effects. why?
CO2 is vasodilatory–can improve tissue perfusion and increase catecholamine release
How can you estimate PaCO2 in horses?
Add 1-5mmHg to ETCO2
Which surgical position of the equine patient can lead to hypoxemia?
In llamas, which two muscle cover the jugular vein?
Two respiratory side effects of Xylazine common to sheep?
Two locations for caudal epidural analgesia?
In cattle and llamas, Xylazine can be combined with which drug to prolong caudal epidural analgesia
Which caudal epidural drug provides the shortest duration of analgesia
Comparing lumbosacral to caudal epidural analgesia, which form impacts motor nerves and causes hindlimb paralysis?
Lumbosacral epidural analgesia
Two types of paravertebral nerve blocks. Which blocks before and which blocks after the nerves branch?
Proximal & Distal paravertebral nerve blocks
Which nerves are blocked with the paravertebral blocks and where do you perform each one?
T13, L1, L2
Proximal–block just caudal to corresponding vertebra
Distal–block at L1, L2, L4
T/F: Xylazine & Ketamine can be given as a bolus injection to ruminants to induce and maintain anesthesia
*ruminants don’t show excitement with ketamine (unlike horses)
Which drugs are found the combination “Llama’s lullaby”?
What is the concentration of BOVINE triple drip?
0.1 mg/ml Xylazine
What is the maintenance rate for bovine triple drip?
Best drug choice/combo for high risk ruminants patients?
Diazepam (or Midazolam) + Ketamine
Also preferred for uretheral obstruction
Drug choice for sedation/immobilization of free-roaming cattle? What can you combine it with?
*Combine with Xylazine & Ketamine (TKX-Ru)
Which type of ruminants are at higher risk for radial nerve paralysis?
Cattle should always be recovered in what position?