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3 different periods of prenatal development

1) preimplantation: Period if the first week

2) embryonic: Extends from the beginning of the second week to the end of the eighth week

3) fetal: Begins with the ninth week and lasts until birth


3 different primary embryonic layers

1) ectoderm( outer layer): skin, brain, spinal cord, hair, nails, enamel, lining of oral cavity

2) mesoderm( middle layer): bones, cartilage, muscles, circulatory system, kidneys, lining of abdomen, & dentin, pulp, & cementum

3) endoderm( inner layer): lining of digestive system, lungs & parts of the urogenital system


Hard & soft plates

The formation of the palate in the embryo & later in the fetus, takes several weeks

- primary palate
- secondary palate


Tooth development

Earliest signs of tooth development are found on the anterior mandibular region when the embryo is 5-6 weeks

At birth there are normally 44 teeth in various stages of development


Facial development

The development of the human face occurs chiefly between the fifth & eighth weeks


Facial development 1st month up to last trimester

1 month: the forehead is the dominant feature

4 months: the face looks human, the hard & soft palates are beginning to form, & the primary dentition has begun

Last trimester: fat is laid down in the cheeks


The two developmental disturbances

Genetic factors: most often concern us tooth & jaw size

Environmental factors: include infections, drugs, & exposure to radiation


Facial development after birth

Modelings & remodelling


Life cycle of a tooth



Growth period

The bus stage: the formation of the tooth begins

The cap stage: the calls of the developing tooth increase

The bell stage: the different tissues of the tooth form & it’s shape are established


Succedadeous teeth

Permanent teeth that replace primary teeth


Eruption of primary teeth

The movement of the tooth into its functional position in the oral cavity


Shedding or exfoliation of primary teeth

Primary teeth are lost as permanent teeth develop


Eruption of permanent teeth

The permanent tooth erupts into the oral cavity in a position lingual to the roots of the shedding primary anterior tooth or between the roots of the shedding primary posterior tooth