Flashcards in Quiz (Corneal Dystrophies, Keratokonus, Lens and Cataracts, and Refractive Surgery) Deck (40)
What are traits that nearly all corneal dystrophies follow?
4. central corneal involvement
What is the procedure that uses a needle to puncture the cornea, allowing for a new basement membrane formation?
anterior stromal puncture
What is the keratoplastic surgery in which all 5 layers are removed? 1. What is the one in which only some are removed? 2
1. penetrating keratoplasty
2. lamellar keratoplasty
What is the procedure used to transplant an endothelium?
DSEAK (Descemet Stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty)
What are the complications of DSEAK? 1. What are the advantages? 2
1. posterior graft dislocation
2. less post-op astigmatism, faster recovery
What are parallel lines that are deep in the posterior stroma that run parallel with the axis of the cone and disappear with pressure called?
What is the sign that is a V shaped lower lid conformation when the patient looks in downgaze?
What is the keratoconus sign that has an oil droplet appearance with retroillumination?
What is the treatment for keratoconus where half circles of PMMA are place into the midstroma for better vision?
What is done to the cornea in corneal cross linking?
1. some epithelium removed
2. Riboflavin added
3. UVA rays applied
4. increase in collagen cross linking
What are the requirements in Germany to perform cross linking?
2. keratoconus or ectasia
3. progression in last year
4. >400um corneal thickness
5. keratometry readings
What is the procedure for keratoconus in which the opaque scarred cornea is replaced with clear donor cornea?
In penetrating keratoplasty what is used to cut the donor button?
What are the possible side effects of penetrating keratoplasty?
1. persistent epithelial defects
2. wound leak
3. shallow anterior chamber
4. iris prolapse
6. inc IOP
8. Graft rejection
What is seen when there is a graft rejection following a penetrating keratoplasty?
What is a removal of the epithelium and anterior stroma called?
What is a removal of the eopithelium and all stromal tissue called?
deep lamellar keratoplasty
What do high blood sugar levels do to the vision of a diabetic patient? 1. Low sugar? 2
1. inc myopia
2. inc hyperopia
What is the leading cause of blindness worldwide?
What are the prevalence percentages for each of these age groups: 1. 52-64? 2. 65-74? 3. 75-85?
What types of cataracts are found to be in more african americans?
Are men or women more likely to have a cataract?
What are the medical risk factors associated with cataracts?
2. family history
What nutritional addition can help lower prevalence of cataracts?
What are the possible causes of a traumatic cataract?
2. ionizing radiation
3. electric shock
What are the different types of cataracts that can occur from a concussion?
1. Vossius ring from iris
What wavelengths do yellow cataract absorb?
low wavelengths so violet and blue
What are the medical reasons where cataract surgery must be done and is not just if the patient wants to?
1. reina not visible in a diabetic
3. hypermature cataracts
What are the things that should be done in all pre-operative cataract surgery appointments?
2. best corrected VA (lights on and off)
3. Amsler grid
4. SLE, IOP, fundus evaluation
5. Optical coherence (OCT)
6. Glare (BAT)
7. IOL power calculation
8. macular integrity