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Flashcards in Quiz I Deck (128)
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1

Why does your immune system begin to get weaker in old age?

• Thymus atrophies and shrinks to 1/3 original size

• Bone density drops and marrow also atrophies

2

List the broad categories of disease the immune system participates in

• Allergy

• Autoimmunity

• Immunopathology

• Graft rejection

• Graft vs. host disease

3

Allergy

Allergies are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.

4

Autoimmunity

Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an autoimmune disease.

5

Immunopathology

Damage caused to an organism by its own immune response, as a result of an infection.

6

Graft rejection

Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.

7

Graft vs. host disease

Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a condition where following transplantation the donor's immune cells in the transplant (graft) make antibodies against the patient's tissues (host) and attack vital organs. Organs most often affected include the skin, gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the liver.

8

Broadly, what is Immunology?

The study of the body's defenses against infection

9

How was the field of Immunology founded?

Edward Jenner (late 18th century)

Saw that people exposed to cowpox did not get smallpox. Demonstrated that deliberate innoculation with cowpox prevented smallpox (first natural vaccination).

10

vaccination

The deliberate inoculation of individuals with weakened or attenuated strains of disease-causing agents to provide protection from disease.

Edward Jenner, first (natural) vaccine; prevented smallpox by injecting cowpox

11

What disease has vaccination eliminated? What disease is (likely) next? How do we know these diseases are eliminated?

Smallpox, next likely Polio.

Smallpox and Polio have no aminal reservoirs.

12

How was Polio wiped out?

Ring vaccination: vaccinating the areas around known infection sites to that the infection cannot spread outside the area.

13

What are the four categories of pathogens?

vuruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites

14

Who discovered that individual microbes were responsible for a particular disease?

Robert Koch (19th century), believed you need to be able to find the cause of disease, and identify it.

15

What categories are modern disease-causing organisms (pathogens) placed into?

Pathogens are placed into four categories:

• viruses

• bacteria

• fungi

• parasites

16

Who created the first intentional, "man-made" vaccine?

Louis Pasteur (1880)

• Developed vaccine for chicken cholera.

• Developed rabies vaccine by passing the virus through rabbits and using their dried spinal chord.

17

How did Pasteur weaken viruses for his vaccines?

He passed them through mammal hosts, which attenuated the pathogenicity of the virus.

18

Who first demonstrated how immunity worked?

Emil von Behring (who won the first Nobel prize in Medicine, 1901) and Shibasaburo Kitasato.

Discovered the blood serum of animals immune to diptheria bacteria contained "anti-toxic activity" (antibodies) that protected others from infection.

19

Where are immune responses directed?

Against pathogens.

20

What are the two divisions of the immune system?

Innate and adaptive immune system

21

antigen

• Any substance that can induce any part of adaptive immunity, not just antibodies.

• Can be almost anything, peptide, pathogen, allergen, food protein, commensal microbe

• Doesn't have to be truly foriegn

22

What is the rough order of the immune response?

• Many pathogens handled sucessfully by innate immunity and cause no disease.

• When innate immunity is not enough, adaptive system is triggered by innate system.

• If the pathogen is overcome, adaptive immune system is often followed by long-lasting immunological memory, decreasing severity or preventing re-infection.

23

leukocyte

• White blood cell (WBC)

• Only blood cells with a nucleus.

• Two types, myeloid cells or lymphoid cells.

24

monocyte cellular "ancestry"

 Multipotent hematopoietic stem cell (Hemocytoblast) > myeloid progenitor > Myeloblast > Monocyte

25

monocyte

precursors of tissue macrophages (which are phagocytes)

26

PMN

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) (also called granulocytes:

• Have multi-lobed nuclei and cytoplasmic granules

 

All are Myeloblast daughter cell types:

• Basiophils

• Neutrophils

• Eosinophils

27

What are the possible daughter cell types of lymphoid progenetor cells?

Natural killer (NK) cells (also called large granular lymphocytes)

Small lymphocytes, which can become either B or T lymphocytes

Plasma cells, which arise from B lymphocytes

28

General features of the innate immune system

• Built-in, does not learn before acting and doesn't need to

• First line of defense, then alerts adaptive immune system

• Anti-microbial peptides are produced in a steady state

• Specific receptors found on many cell types that recognise microbial products

29

What part of the immune system produces responses to specific microbes?

adaptive

30

What are white blood cells called?

leukocyte