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Flashcards in Quiz Questions Deck (76):
1

EMG

Electromyography

2

In the quantitative analysis of running in AFL, what was one of the key findings?

There is a persistent imbalance between left and right legs.

3

Transverse plane

Divides top and bottom halves

4

Sagittal plane

Vertical, dividing left and right halves

5

Frontal plane

Divides front and back halves

6

Frontal axis

Sagittal plane

7

Longitudinal axis

Transverse plane

8

Sagittal axis

Frontal plane

9

Contribution of sports medicine to developing an athlete

Injury management

10

Contribution of physiology to developing an athlete

Fitness

11

Contribution of strength and conditioning to developing an athlete

Physical state

12

Contribution of psychology to developing an athlete

Mental state

13

Statics, in mechanical terms, is:

Mechanics of objects at rest or moving at constant velocity

14

Bar path and bar velocity are tied to body position during which 2 phases of the snatch?

First and second pull

15

As a bowler turns his arm over to bowl the ball, his arm is undergoing what motion?

Angular motion around the frontal axis

16

As a bowler runs towards the wicket prior to delivering he is undergoing what motion?

Linear motion in the sagittal plane

17

As a batsman steps forward before rotating to strike the ball his trunk is undergoing what type of motion?

Linear motion in the frontal plane

18

As a batsman plays the sweep shot to hit the ball, his trunk is undergoing what type of motion?

Angular motion about the longitudinal axis.

19

Ligaments are a ____ Body

Non-rigid

20

Muscles are a ____ body

Non-rigid

21

A cricket bat is a ____ body

Rigid

22

Bones are ____ bodies

Rigid

23

In a closed kinetic chain movement, the distal segments move...

Simultaneously with the proximal segments

24

What effect does body mass have on the relationship between minimalist shoes and risk of running injury?

Heavier runners have increased risk of injury when running in minimalist shoes

25

What is the definition of stride length?

The distance between consecutive foot-ground contacts of the same foot

26

What are the characteristics of minimalist footwear?

Lack of motion control devices
Low shoe mass
High flexibility
Low heel-toe drop

27

When compared to conventional shoes, what effect does running barefoot have on stride rate and stride length?

Increased stride rate
Decreased stride length

28

When compared to conventional shoes, what effect does running in minimalist shoes have on mechanical work at the knee and ankle?

Increased mechanical work at the ankle
Decreased mechanical work at the knee joint

29

Running in minimalist shoes is most likely to increase pain in which parts of the body?

Ankle, calf and shin

30

Good running economy is demonstrated by...

Using less energy at a given running velocity

31

When compared to conventional shoes, what effect does running barefoot have on knee and ankle joint angles at initial contact?

Increased knee flexion and ankle plantarflexion

32

What is the definition of ground reaction force?

A force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted by a body/object on the ground

33

Angular momentum

The magnitude of a system's angular motion
Requires angular impulse to change it

34

A skier flying through the air wants to decrease forward rotation of their body. They should...

Rotate their arms forwards in large circles

35

Moment of inertia

Rotational inertia, the resistance of a body to change its rotary motion

36

What are the 4 properties of a torque?

Magnitude
Axis of rotation
Line of application
Point of application

37

The moment of inertia of the lower extremity around the hip joint is changed by knee flexion and extension, which alters what?

The radius of gyration

38

Regarding torque, clockwise motion is...

Negative (-ve)

39

Regarding torque, anticlockwise motion is...

Positive (+ve)

40

After determining the location and nature of the obstacle, the MIT 'Cheetah' then processes information to alter...

Step length and force required to clear the obstacle

41

As a runner runs, their centre of gravity oscillates and as such, the work done by the runner will...

Vary based on the vertical oscillations of the CoG.

42

Describe the forces of the front and rear feet in a sprinter off the starting blocks.

Front foot: concentric force in the sagittal plane
Rear foot: eccentric force in the frontal plane

43

Free body diagrams are characterised by:

Stick figure representation of rigid bodies and external forces acting on the system.

44

What are the unique properties of a force?

Magnitude
Direction
Line of action
Point of application

45

When the MIT 'Cheetah' lands on its front feet after clearing the hurdle this is an example of ____ equilibrium.

Unstable

46

According to the results of Adolph et al. (2012), what changes occur as we learn to walk?
- step length, width and per hour
- time walking
- distance covered
- no. falls

Step length increases
Step width decreases
Time walking increases
Steps per hour increase
Distance covered increases
Falls decrease

47

An eccentric force causes a body to undergo...

Rotational motion
May also cause translation

48

How does the MIT Cheetah robot analyse its environment to plan its motions?

It uses a 2D laser distance sensor to get information about height and distance of the object.

49

What mechanical factors can be used to maximise stability?
What does this do to mobility?

Increase base of support, lower centre of gravity, position centre of gravity towards the expected external force within the base of support.
Decreases motility

50

A point of peak flexion in a squat is often referred to as the ___

Hole

51

The high-bar is ___ to the snatch and clean

Comparable

52

If an Olympic weightlifter squats 190kg (1RM), what could you predict their snatch 1RM will be?

106.4kg

53

What will typically occur if the CoP moves out of the BoS?

A loss of balance

54

The low-bar back-squat displays ___ forward lean than the high-bar back-squat?

Greater

55

A belt-less 1RM back-squat is typically __% of a belted back-squat 1RM.

90

56

Kinetics can be defined by forces that cause ____.

Motion

57

Kinematics can be defined as describing movement without ____.

Force

58

At what speed does a 1RM squat typically occur at?

0.2m/s

59

The ____ is often referred to as the 'traditional' squat.

High-bar

60

In Carol Putnam's paper on segmental interaction, one of her conclusions is that the summation of speed ___ is a valid explanation of the sequential sequencing observed in walking, running and kicking, but the summation of ___ principle cannot be similarly explained.

Speed
Force

61

In de Hoyo et al (2016), what parameters did they find were more likely altered by the eccentric training on side-stepping performance?

Contact time and time spent braking.

62

A good observational strategy should include at least these 3 items:

What critical features to focus on
How to control the situation
Number of observations needed

63

What are the 4 components of a skill analysis?

Preparation
Observation
Evaluation
Intervention

64

Projectile motion applies to all bodies including humans. For performance purposes...

CoG cannot be altered once in flight, by applying internal forces to the limbs to change the distribution of mass with respect to the CoG.

65

When might 45 degrees not be the optimum release angle for maximum range?

A faster release speed may be possible at a lower or higher angle.

66

What is common to all projectile motion?

Gravity

67

To ensure maximum range when the release height is greater than the landing height...

...then the optimal angle of release is less than 45 degrees.

68

To ensure maximum range when the release height is less than the landing height...

...then the optimal angle of release is greater than 45 degrees.

69

To ensure maximum range when the release height is the same as the landing height...

...then the optimal release angle is 45 degrees.

70

In projectile motion, what does the height of release determine?

Trajectory shape (the difference between the height of initial projection to the height at which it lands or stops)

71

In projectile motion, what does the velocity of release determine?

The length or size of the projectile's trajectory.

72

In projectile motion, what does the angle of release determine?

The shape of a projectile's trajectory

73

Projectile motion is characterised by _____ horizontal velocity and _____ vertical velocity

Constant horizontal velocity
Changing vertical velocity

74

What factors determine the range of a projectile?

Horizontal velocity and time in the air

75

According to Blazevich (2012), to learn a skill that requires high speed and high accuracy, like a tennis serve, it is common to teach...

...the skill in a way that breaks the skill down to a push-like pattern and then progress to a throw-like pattern.

76

In Carol Putnam's paper on segmental interaction, what was one of her conclusions?

That the summation of speed principle is a valid explanation of the sequential sequencing observed in walking, running and kicking, but the summation of force principle cannot be similarly explained.