Civilization withdrew from science during the Dark Ages (500 AD-1500 AD). List three factors that contributed to the lack of scientific investigation during this period.
- Books did not exist at this time because printing was not available.
- Thinking was mostly reserved for those who participated in the clergy
- People who were considered free thinkers were seen as a threat.
Science emerged again with the coming of the Renaissance in the 13th century. What change occurred in people’s attitudes to bring about the new age?
Even though science was withdrawn during the Dark Ages, there were people who continued to work with science. Plant and animal worlds (which were unclassified) were then classified/named, anatomies were corrected, and people began problem solving through experimentation.
Why do we say that the scientific method should not be focused on questions of religion such as whether or not God exists?
According to Weiz, we cannot apply the scientific method to God because, if the hypothesis (God exists everywhere) is correct, he would be present everywhere; if the hypothesis is incorrect, he would be absent from any test. Either way, we cannot run a controlled experiment and therefore cannot apply the scientific method.
Why is skepticism a desirable characteristic in the scientific community?
Skepticism is a desirable characteristic in the scientific community because it causes people to observe their experimental results carefully, instead of merely accepting something without true experimentation. Science asks for proof.
What is the scientific method?
The scientific method is used for problem solving with several identifiable components: observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and conclusion.
What is the first component of the scientific method?
Why do scientists agree that only events that can be observed repeatedly are in the realm of science?
Science is incapable of making concrete studies involving miracles, or religion. They are not within the realm of science.
Perimeter of a block of wood
- 7-14.5 centimeters
5. 7 inches
Submerging block of wood into water
Volume: 50 milliliters
Volume: 1.69 fluid oz
Weight of the wood on a balance system
The number of milliliters to one quart of water
One quart = 900-946 milliliters
What was the initial observation that triggered the curiosity of the island research scientist and led to the published paper?
While the research scientist was in a remote island, his beard growth diminished. However, on the day before he was due to leave to island, his beard growth increased.
What was the general pattern he observed in the daily growth of his beard?
On the day he returned to the mainland, his beard grew significantly. When he would maintain sexual activity for a week, beard growth would decline to normal within 4-6 days. After 2-3 days with no sexual activity, his beard would grow increasingly again.
Why is it important that scientists make observations over a long period of time (from several weeks to many years depending on the study) before they make any public statement about what they have seen?
It is important that scientists make observations over a long period of time before they make any public statement because changes could occur during their studies.
Why would it also be important to seek other individuals in similar situations to see whether or not the same patterns were demonstrated in their cases?
It is important to seek other individuals in similar situations because their experiments could help support their hypothesis.
After watching the trend of beard growth for several weeks and comparing notes with other people, what generalizations was the island researcher able to make about his own observations?
The scientist realized that beard growth was definitely heavier on weekends (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday) than on any other day for the rest of the week.
An educated guess or assumption.
State the role of hypothesis formation in the scientific process.
A hypothesis is used to set off experiments that either prove or disprove it.
What was the hypothesis being tested by the experiment?
The hypothesis was the statement about increased beard growth during the weekends, after a period in which he experienced sexual abstinence.
What was the experiment?
He collected his beard clippings daily from his razor and weighed them on a scale. He then wrote down his results on a daily graph.
Did the scientist set up a controlled experiment in which variables were introduced to verify his hypothesis?
It seems as if the scientist did set up a controlled experiment. The only thing used in his experiment was his beard hair.
What is a control in a scientific experiment?
A control in a scientific experiment is a set of controlled observations that are not allowed to vary, in order for the scientist to compare them.
It is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable.
Explain how an experiment to test the effectiveness of Vitamin C could be set up with controls.
Participants are split up into two groups, one group is given Vitamin C and the other is given a placebo. They are watched for improvements in mental attitudes, stress levels, and overall moods. If their moods have improved, then Vitamin C could be used to treat their colds.
The system of measurements preferred by the scientific community is called the…
The basic metric units of measurement are ___ (length), ___ (volume), and ____ (weight).
Meter; liter; and gram
1 centimeter equals ___ inches
1 meter equals ___ inches
1 kilometer equals ___ miles
1 inch equals ___ centimeters
1 gram equals ___ ounces
1 kilogram equals __ pounds
454 grams equal ___ pounds
28.24 grams equal ___ ounce
1 milliliter equals ___ fluid ounces
0.034 fluid ounces
1 liter equals
1.06 quarts = 0.26 gallons
1 milliliter equals __ cubic centimeter
1 cubic centimeter
Freezing point of water: ___ Fahrenheit and ___ Celsius
Average room temperature: ___ Fahrenheit and ___ Celsius
Human body temperature: ___ Fahrenheit and ___ Celsius
Boiling point of water: __ Fahrenheit and __ Celsius