___ carries the hereditary information.
___ transforms energy in food into a usable form.
___ are the sites of protein synthesis in the cell.
___ are important in animal cell division.
___ is the organelle that contains chlorophyll.
___ is the structure that propels the sperm cell.
___ are the structures that propel Paramecium.
___ is a dense dark body within the nucleus.
___ stores water and dissolved minerals in a plant cell.
___ is the cellulose jacket surrounding the protoplasm of a plant cell.
___ is the membrane enclosing the cytoplasm.
___ is the packaging and shipping center of the cell.
Although these were present in all the living cells you observed, they were only visible in the cheek epithelium cells. What are they?
___ are the food manufacturing structures of a plant cell.
The colorless material comprising the living part of a cell, including the cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles
The material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
It is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of cells.
What are two functions of the plant cell wall?
Maintaining and determining cell shape
Support and mechanical strength
What chemical compound is very abundant in plant cell walls?
Cellulose, a complex carbohydrate made up of several thousand glucose molecules linked end to end
State the cell theory.
Cells are the basic unit of structure in all organisms and also the basic unit of reproduction.
What is the function of the root epidermis?
It absorbs water and minerals from the soil. They have special extensions called root hairs, which take in most of the water and minerals.
What is the function of the stem and leaf epidermis?
On most plant stems and leaves, the epidermis is covered with a waxy coating called the cuticle, which helps prevent water loss through the epidermis.
What is the function of the nucleus?
It contains the majority of the cell’s genetic material, which is organized as DNA molecules, along with a variety of proteins, to form chromosomes.
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
It surrounds every nucleus. It keeps DNA inside the nucleus and protects it from materials in the cytoplasm.
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Its main function is to make ribosomal subunits from protein and ribosomal RNA, also known as rRNA.
What is the function of chromatin?
Its function is to efficiently package DNA into a small volume to fit into the nucleus of a cell and protect the DNA structure and sequence. Packaging DNA into chromatin allows for mitosis and meiosis, prevents chromosome breakage and controls gene expression and DNA replication.
What is the function of chloroplasts?
They work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. The entire process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each chloroplast.
What is the function of mitochondria?
They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell. The biochemical processes of the cell are known as cellular respiration.
What is the function of vacuoles?
Vacuoles are surrounded by membranes and function to hold materials and wastes. They might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive.
What is the function of ribosomes?
They make protein, which is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes.
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
They are responsible for many general functions, including the folding of protein molecules in sacs called cisternae and the transport of synthesized proteins in vesicles to the Golgi apparatus.
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
It is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging of proteins for secretion. It is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes.
What is the function of cilia?
There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile cilia.
Motile cilia, which means “moving,” can be found in the respiratory tract, middle ear, and other body systems. They move in a rhythmic or pulsating motion, and use the motion to keep sensitive internal passageways free of mucus or foreign particles.
Non-motile cilia serve different functions in different cells. Some serve as antenna that receive sensory information for the cell, processing signals from the other cells or the fluids surrounding it.
What is the function of flagella?
The primary role of flagella is locomotion but it also often serves as a sensory organelle. They are used by cells and unicellular organisms for movement, sensation, and signal transduction.
What is the difference between individual cells and tissues?
A cell is the basic unit of life. A tissue is an organization of “like-minded” cells performing a specific function.
Which are larger, plant or animal vacuoles?
Plant vacuoles. It can hold large amounts of water or food.
List two structures that are found in plant cells that are not found in animal cells.
Chloroplasts, which contain chlorophyll, and a cell wall.
List two structures that are found in animal cells that are not found in plant cells.
Centrosomes and lysosomes.
Acid removes what part of the bone?
What does acid soaked bone look like?
It’s more flexible than bone that is not soaked in acid
What does heated bone looks like?
It looks darker, brittle, and brown.
Heating removes what part of the bone?
Heating removes the organic part of bone.
What is the function of the organic material in bone?
The organic material in bone gives bone flexibility and strength.
What is the major function of bone?
Bones function as levers for the muscles to provide movement of the body.
Explain the relationship among the following parts of bone:
Each osteon–or haversian system–consists of concentric layers, or lamallae, of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal, the haversian canal, which contains the bone’s nerve and blood supplies.
Canaliculi are microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone.
What is the function of muscle tissue?
There are three types of muscle tissues: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. It provides a) posture and body support, b) locomotion, and c) heat production.
Arrange the following in order of increasing complexity: organ, tissue, organ system, cell, and organism.
Cell –> tissue –> organ –> organ system –> organism
Describe the “shape” of Amoeba.
It has no definite shape. It can extend parts of its own body into different directions.