Radiographic Dental Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Radiographic Dental Anatomy Deck (36):
1

Give two reasons for Cervical Burnout on a radiograph (2)

- Normal configuration of the affected teeth, results in decreased x-ray absorption in the areas in question
- Perception of these areas is due to contrast with the adjacent, relatively radiopaque enamel and alveolar – bone

2

What should Cervical Burnout not be confused with? (1)

- It should not be confused with root caries which has a similar appearance

3

Describe the Dental Papilla with its bony crypt in a developing unerrupted tooth (2)

- A radiolucent area seen surrounding the tooth in the trabecular bone
- It is surrounded by the hyperostotic bone

4

Name four supporting structures of the tooth (4)

- Periodontal ligament space
- Lamina dura
- Alveolar crest
- Trabecular bone

5

Describe the radiographic features of the Periodontal Ligament Space (2)

- It is composed of collagen so appears as a radiolucent space between the root and lamina dura
- It is thinner in the middle of the root and slightly wider near the alveolar crest and the apex, suggesting that the fulcrum of the physiologic movement is in the region where PDL is thinnest

6

Describe the radiographic features of the Lamina Dura (3)

- It is a thin radiopaque layer of dense bone surrounding the tooth socket
- Its radiographic appearance is due to attenuation of the x-ray mean as it passes tangentially through the thickness of the bone
- It is thicker than the surrounding trabecular bone and thickness increases with increase in amount of occlusal stress

7

Describe the radiographic features of the Alveolar Crest, when is it considered normal? (2)

- It is the radiopaque gingival margin of the alveolar process which surrounds the teeth
- It is considered normal if it is 1.5mm or less from the CEJ

8

Describe Cancellous Bone and its radiographic features (4)

- Also called the trabecular bone or the spongiosa
- Lies between the cortical plates in both jaw bones
- It is composed of thin radiopaque plates and rods surrounding many small radiolucent pockets of marrow
- In posterior maxilla, it is similar to anterior maxilla but marrow spaces are larger

9

List the twelve anatomic landmarks of the Maxilla (12)

- Intermaxillary suture
- Anterior nasal spine
- Nasal fossa and nasal septum
- Incisive foramen
- Superior foramina of nasopalatine canal
- Lateral fossa
- Nose
- Nasolacrimal canal
- Maxillary sinus
- Zygoma and zygomatic process of maxilla
- Masolabial fold
- Pterygoid plates

10

Describe the radiographic features of the Intermaxilarry Suture (3)

- Also called the Median Suture
- Appears as a thin radiolucent line in the midline between the two portions of premaxilla
- It extends from the alveolar crest between the central incisors superiorly through the anterior nasal spine and continues posteriorly between the maxillary palatine process to the posterior aspect of the hard palate

11

Describe the radiographic features of the Anterior Nasal Spine (3)

- Mostly seen between the central incisors
- Located in the midline 1.5-2cm above the alveolar crest
- It is radiopaque and usually v-shaped

12

Describe the radiographic features of the Nasal Fossa and Nasal Septum (1)

- The nasal cavity shows the hazy shadow of the inferior nasal conchae extending from the right and left lateral walls

13

Describe the radiographic features of the Incisive Foramen, what is it also known as and what radiographic variability is due to? (5+2)

- Also called NASOPALATINE or ANTERIOR PALATINE FORAMEN
- It is the oral terminates of the nasopalatine canal
- It transmits the nasopalatine vessels and nerves
- Lies in the midline of palate behind the central incisors at the junction of the median palatine and incisive sutures
- Radiographic image variability is due to:
1. Different angles of the X-ray beam
2. Variability in its anatomical size

14

What is the Incisive Formen a frequent potential site for? (1)

- Cyst formation

15

Describe the radiographic features of the Superior Foramina of the Nasopalatine Canal (2)

- The nasopalatine canal originates at two foramina in floor of the nasal cavity
- Radiographically, it can be recognized as two radiolucent areas above the apices of the central incisors in floor for the nasal cavity near its anterior border and both the sides of the septum

16

Describe the radiographic features of the Lateral Fossa, what is it also known as? (3)

- Also called the INCISIVE FOSSA
- Appears as depression in the maxilla near the apex of the lateral incisor
- Appears diffusely radiolucent in the IOPA

17

Describe the radiographic features of the Nasolacrimal Canal (2)

- The nasal and maxillary bones form the nasolacrimal canal
- It runs from the medial aspect of the antero inferior border of the orbit inferiorly, to drain under the inferior conchae into the nasal cavity

18

Describe the radiographic features of the Nose (2)

- The soft tissue of the nose is frequently seen in the projections of the maxillary central and lateral incisors, superimposed over the roots of these teeth
- Image appears uniformly opaque with a sharp border

19

Describe the radiographic features of the Nasolabial Fold (1)

- An oblique line demarcating a region that appears to be covered by a slight radio opacity frequently traverses periapical radiographs of the premolar region

20

Describe the radiographic features of the Maxilllary Sinus and how it changes with age (8)

- MAXILLARY SINUS is an air containing cavity lined by mucous membrane
- Appears as the three sided pyramid
Base formed by mesial wall adjacent to nasal cavity
Apex extending laterally into the zygomatic process of maxilla
- Maxillary sinus appears as a thin, delicate radiopaque line
- It extends from the distal aspect of the canine to the posterior wall of the maxilla above the tuberosity
- Around the age of puberty, its floor coincides with the floor of the nasal cavity
- In response to the loss of function ( associated with the loss of posterior teeth) the sinus may expand further into the alveolar bone, occasionally extending to the alveolar ridge
- Thin radiolucent lines of the uniform width are found within the image of the maxillary sinus
- These are shadows of the neuro-vascular canals that accommodate the posterior superior vessels and nerves

21

Describe the radiographic features of the Zygomatic Process and Zygomatic Bone (2)

- The zygomatic process of the maxilla is an extension of the lateral maxillary surface that arises in the region of the apices of the first and second molars and serves as the articulation for the zygomatic bone
- Appears as a U-shaped radiopaque line with rounded ends projected in the apical region of the first and second molar

22

Describe the radiographic features of the Pterygoid Plates (3)

- The medial and lateral pterygoid plates lie immediately posterior to the tuberosity of maxilla
- They cast a single radiopaque shadow without any evidence of trabeculation
- Extending inferiorly from the medial pterygoid plate, the hamular process may be seen

23

List the thirteen anatomical landmarks of the Mandible (13)

- Symphysis
- Genial Tubercles
- Lingual Foramen
- Mental Ridge
- Mental Fossa
- Mental Foramen
- Mandibular Canal
- Nutrient Canals
- Mylohyoid Ridge
- Submandibular Gland Fossa
- External Oblique Ridge
- Inferior Border of Mandible
- Coronoid Process

24

Describe the radiographic features of the Symphysis (2)

- The region of mandibular symphysis in infants demonstrates a radiolucent line through the midline of the jaw between the images of the forming deciduous central incisors
- The suture usually fuses by the end of 1st year of line and is no longer radiographically apparent

25

Describe the radiographic features of the Genial Tubercles (3)

- These are tiny bumps of bone that serve as attachemtn for the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscles
- Present on lingual side
- Appears as a ringshaped radiopacity below the apices of mandibular incisors

26

Describe the radiographic features of the Mental Ridge (2)

- It is a linear prominence of cortical bone located on the external surface extending from the premolar region to the midline and slopes upward
- Radiographically, appears as a radiopaque band that extends from the premolar region to the incisor region

27

Describe the radiographic features of the Mental Fossa (2)

- Located above the mental ridge
- On a periapical radiograph, appears as a radiolucent area above the mental ridge

28

Describe the radiographic features of the Mental Foramen (3)

- Located on the external surface of the mandible as an opening in the region of the mandibular premolars
- Mental nerves and blood vessels exit through it
- Radiographically, it appears as a small ovoid radiolucent area located below the apices of the premolars

29

Describe the radiographic features of the Mandibular Canal (2)

- Tube like passage extending from the mandibular foramen to the mental foramen and contains inferior alveolar nerves and blood vessels
- Appears as a radiolucent band outlined by two radiopaque lines of cortical plate

30

Describe the radiographic features of the Nutrient Canals (3)

- Nutrient canals are tube like passage-ways through bone that contain nerves and blood vessels that supply the teeth
- Radiographically seen as vertical radiolucent lines
- More prominent in anterior mandible where bone is thin

31

Describe the radiographic features of the Mylohyoid Ridge (3)

- Linear prominence of bone located on the internal surface of mandible
- Extends from the molar region downward and forward towards the lower border of mandibular symphysis
- Appears as radiopaque band extending downward from molars

32

Describe the radiographic features of the External Oblique Ridge (2)

- Linear prominence of bone located on external surface of mandible extending downwards and is a continuation of anterior border of ramus
- It appears as a radiopaque band extending downwards and forwards from anterior border of mandible and ends in third molar region

33

Describe the radiographic features of the Submandibular Gland Fossa (3)

- Depressed area of bone located on the internal surface of mandible
- Submandibular salivary gland lies in this fossa
- It appears as a radiolucent area in the molar region below the mylohyoid ridge

34

Describe the radiographic features of the Internal Oblique Ridge (2)

- Linear prominence of bone located on internal surface of mandible extending downwards and forwards from ramus
- It appears as a radiopaque band extending downwards from ramus

35

Describe the radiographic features of the Inferior border of the Mandible (1)

- Occasionally, seen as a dense broad radiopaque band of bone

36

Describe the radiographic features of the Coronoid Process (2)

- It is a marked prominence of bone on the anterior ramus of the mandible
- It is seen as a triangular radiopacity superimposed over or inferior to maxillary tuberosity