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Flashcards in radiology Deck (16):
1

rotation of xray

-refers to how well is patient lined up
-if distal clavicles lined up--good
-if side rotated toward projector will have smaller structures--considered bad

2

inspiration for CXR

-helps clear abd organs out of the way
-limits opacity/whitening d/t blood vessels

3

penetration

-dependent on am't. of radiation; >radiation--darker the image
-overly penetrated leads to loss of structure
-under penetrated leads to white out
-look at upper lobes to compare/also vertebrae

4

cardiac

-lateral hrt border easily discernible
-medial hidden behind other structures
-normal medial border does not pass mediastinum
-silhouette of hrt should not be:
PA-more than 1/2 of diameter of chest cavity
AP-more than 1/3 the diameter of chest cavity

5

infiltration

-pocket of fluid

6

consolidation

dense collection of infiltrates

7

pneumonia

-immune response causes collection, not organisms
-pt could have clear cxr and still have pneumonia
-next day cxr might show consolidation after immune response kicks in

8

asthma/copd

-air trapping
-may be able to count 11-12 ribs

9

CHF

-cephalization or shunting of blood into higher vasculature d/t bases are filled
-kurly "b" lines-fluid filling up of periphery

10

costophrenic angle

nice sharp angle-lung and diaphragm junction-normal
-loss of angle; higher=pleural effusion in lung

11

abdominal xray

small intestines: haustra-lines not all the way across
-usually don't see d/t filled with fluid
-dilated:>5 cm
large: pleicha circularis-all the way across
-dilated:>9 cm
-dark spot-free air/gas possibly d/t ileus

12

cspine lateral view

-lateral view most important
-should see c1-c7 and top of t1
-assess alignment: anterior vertical, posterior, post lamital line (above spinal cord)
-atlanto-dens interval: distance between anterior surface of dens and posterior surface of tubericle
-in adults normal

13

cspine AP view

-check alignment of spinous processes
-check facets for dislocation

14

cspine odontoin view

-view lateral mass
-odontoid process (peg) should line up with 2 front teeth
-type I fx: tip of peg
-type II fx: at shaft
-type III fx: into vertebrae

15

long bone xray

-trace cortex of bone (outer edge)
-fx shows disruption of cortex usually associated with of medullary bone
-when assessing for long bone fx get joint above and below
-fx needs to penetrate both sides except in green stick fx in kids

16

PA v. AP

PA: emitter behind; xrays from behind
AP: emitter infront shooting backwards

*further away from the emitter-the larger the structure looks on image; i.e. hrt appears larger in AP