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1

Pores where water is lost in a leaf?

Stomata

2

How are guard cells adapted to their role?

Can change shape/bend, unevenly thickened cell wall

3

Bar cohesion, how does water go from the roots to the leaf?

Evaporation at top of plant creates tension in xylem, pulling the water up

4

What cell division does yeast undergo?

Budding

5

Which out of yeast, animals, plants and bacteria have ribosomes?

All of them!

6

What is the tissue type that undergoes division to get undifferentiated plant cells?

Meristemic

7

Which organelles are not found in mature xylem vessels?

Cytoplasm or nucleus

8

What is special about the structure of cell walls in xylem vessels?

Lignified, thicker, have bordered pits

9

Three types of cell found in phloem tissue?

Sieve tube element, companion cell, parenchyma

10

Name two types of epithelium?

Squamous, ciliated

11

How do alveoli create a short diffusion pathway for efficient gas exchange?

1 cell thick wall (short diffusion pathway), epithelium provide short DP also

12

How does alveoli help gas exchange?

Elastic so recoil, maintain concentration gradient for diffusion, small SA to volume ratio

13

What apparatus is used to measure ventilation?

Spirometer

14

What is the plasma membrane containing?

Phospholipid bilayer, containing proteins (glycoproteins stick out of bilayer)

15

How does high temperature effect the plasma membrane?

Bilayer becomes fluid, phospholipids vibrate, move and their KE is increased

16

If the atria contracted twice instead of once per cycle, one after the other, how would it effect blood output?

Lower blood out put per contraction, atrium cannot refill with blood

17

How can fetus' breathe?

A fetus' lungs do not function, blood is not oxygenated in their lungs but in the placenta from their mother

18

Does fetal or adult haemoglobin have a higher affinity for O2?

Fetal haemoglobin has a higher affinity for O2 as fetal must bind to O2 in lower partial pressure (in placenta)

19

What does smooth endoplasmic reticulum do?

Transport and synthesise lipids/fats/carbs

20

What do lysosomes do?

Contain hydrolysing enzymes or break down pathogens

21

Mitosis order?

People may attack the cunt

22

How to work out percentages?

Small/big x 100

23

How to identify a non-reducing sugar?

Don't have an OH group, so cannot reduce other compounds

24

What sugars are reducing sugars?

All monosaccharides, some disaccharides

25

Which sugars are non-reducing sugars?

Sucrose

26

What is a non reducing sugar?

A sugar that cannot donate electrons to other molecules and therefore cannot act as a reducing agent

27

What is ammonia?

A colourless gas, with strong smell - dissolves in water to make a strongly alkaline solution