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Flashcards in Random cards Deck (41)
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1
Q
Fas
A
Fas-ligand (pro-apoptotic extrinsic factor) binds Fas receptor/ TNF-1 receptor (CD95)
--> activates FADD (death domain)
--> cytosolic caspases activated
--> cellular breakdown
2
Q
Granzyme
A
Extrinsic apoptic factor from Killer T cells
- Release granzyme B and perforin
--> hole in membrane
3
Q
Bax
A
pro-apoptotic factor--> increased mitochondrial permeability
--> cytochrome C released
--> mitochondrial Ca+2 released
--> cytosolic caspases released
--> cellular breakdown

** in balance of Bcl-2= anti-apoptotic factor (mutations promoting Bcl-2--> cancer)
4
Q
E-selectin/P-selectin
A
Rolling neutrophils bind to E/P selectin on vasculature/stroma via Sialyl-Lewis(x) group)
- Sialyl Lewis group missing in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type II
5
Q
ICAM-1
A
Intracellular adhesion molecule-1

Leukocyte binds LFA-1 (integrin) on its surface to ICAM-1 (tight binding) on blood vessel wall
6
Q
PECAM-1
A
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule

Diapedesis: leukocyte binds PECAM-1 and migrates between endothelial cells--> exits into interstitium
7
Q
C5a, IL-8, LTB4, Kallikreain
A
Bacterial products that attract leukocyte (chemotactic signals)--> phagocytosis of bacteria
8
Q
Granulomatous disease
A
Th1 cells secrete gamma-IFN--> macrophage activation

Macrophages secrete TNF-alpha= induces and maintains granuloma
9
Q
Decreased ESR
A
Sickle cell (altered shape)
Polycythemia (too many RBCs)
CHF (unknown)
10
Q
AL amyloidosis
A
Primary amyloidosis

IgLight chains
- Due to plasma cell disorder, multiple myeloma
--> multi organ system impact (renal, cardiac, hematologic, hepatic, neuropathy)
11
Q
AA amyloidosis
A
Secondary to chronic disease: RA, IBD, spondyloarthropathy, chronic infections

- Fibrils= serum Amyloid A (AA)
- Multisystem
12
Q
beta-2 microglobulin fibrils
A
Seen in dialysis-related amyloidosis
--> carpal tunnel syndrome, joint issues
13
Q
ATTR amyloidosis
A
Heritable
- Neurologic/cardiac amyloidosis d/t transthyretic (TTR or prealbumin) gene mutation
14
Q
Anaplasia
A
Abnormal cells lacking differentiation: ressemble primitive cells of same tissue
- Little or no resemblance to tissue of origin

Irreversible change (like neoplasia)
15
Q
Desmoplasia
A
Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm

Irreversible change (like neoplasia)
16
Q
Tumor stage
A
TNM:
Tumor size (perforate out of capsule?)
Node involvement
Metastases (perforate vessels, lymph? important prognostic factor)

** Staging has more prognostic value than grade
17
Q
Cachexia
A
Mediated by TNF-alpha (cachectin), IFN-gamma, IL-6
- Macrophages--> TNF-alpha, IL-6 (pyrogenic)

Weight loss, atrophy, fatique d/t chronic disease
18
Q
Tuberous sclerosis
A
Facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation

Associated neoplasms:
- Giant cell astrocytoma
- Renal angiomylolipoma
- Cardiac rhabdomyoma
19
Q
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
A
Esophageal webs, dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia

Associated neoplasm: squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
20
Q
abl
A
Oncogene encoding Tyrosine kinase
- Associated with CML (t(9;22)--> bcr-abl fusion protein)
21
Q
c-myc
A
Transcription factor oncogene
- Associated with Burkitt's lymphoma= t(8;14)--> CD10, BCL-6
22
Q
HER2/neu (c-erbB2)
A
Tyrosine kinase
- Associated with breast, ovarian, gastric carcinomas
23
Q
ras
A
GTPase: GTP bound--> activated--> MAPKinase system--> nucleus
- Colon carcinoma
24
Q
ret
A
Tyrosine kinase
- MEN 2A, 2B
25
Q
c-kit
A
Cytokine receptor
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)
26
Q
p16
A
Tumor suppressor gene
- LOF seen in melanoma, along with BRAF
27
Q
Rb
A
Chromosome 13: RB1
Inhibits E2F (transcription factor)
Blocks G1--> S phase
- Associated with Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
2 hit hypothesis: lose heterogeneity (after already having one defective gene)
28
Q
p53
A
Transcription factor for p21
Blocks G1--> S phase

Seen in most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome
29
Q
CEA
A
CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen
- Seen in colorectal, pancreatic cancer
- Also gastric, breast, medullary thyroid cancer
30
Q
CA-125
A
Ovarian cancer marker
31
Q
S-100
A
Neural-crest derived tumors:
- Melanoma, neural tumor, schwannomas
32
Q
Alkaline Phosphatase
A
Elevated in Bone, liver mets
Seen in Paget's disease of bone
33
Q
Bombesin
A
Marker of neuroblastoma, lung, gastric cancer
34
Q
CA-19-9
A
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma marker
35
Q
Vinyl chloride
A
Exposure related to angiosarcoma of liver
36
Q
Arsenic
A
SCC of skin
Angiosarcoma of liver
37
Q
Iron poisoning
A
Peroxidation of membrane lipids
- Acute= gastric bleeding
- Chronic= metabolic acidosis, scarring--> GI obstruction
38
Q
N-myc
A
Transcription factor
- See in neuoroblastoma
39
Q
WT1
A
Wilm's tumor
- Chromosome 11
40
Q
NF1
A
Neurofibromatosis 1
- NF-1 gene codes for neurofibromin= suppressor of Ras
- RAS GTPase activation protein (RAS-GAP)
- Chrom 17
41
Q
NF2
A
Neurofibromatosis 2
- Merlin (schwannomin protein)
- Chrom 22