Random cards Flashcards Preview

Step 1 Subjects > Random cards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Random cards Deck (41):
1

Fas

Fas-ligand (pro-apoptotic extrinsic factor) binds Fas receptor/ TNF-1 receptor (CD95)
--> activates FADD (death domain)
--> cytosolic caspases activated
--> cellular breakdown

2

Granzyme

Extrinsic apoptic factor from Killer T cells
- Release granzyme B and perforin
--> hole in membrane

3

Bax

pro-apoptotic factor--> increased mitochondrial permeability
--> cytochrome C released
--> mitochondrial Ca+2 released
--> cytosolic caspases released
--> cellular breakdown

** in balance of Bcl-2= anti-apoptotic factor (mutations promoting Bcl-2--> cancer)

4

E-selectin/P-selectin

Rolling neutrophils bind to E/P selectin on vasculature/stroma via Sialyl-Lewis(x) group)
- Sialyl Lewis group missing in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type II

5

ICAM-1

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1

Leukocyte binds LFA-1 (integrin) on its surface to ICAM-1 (tight binding) on blood vessel wall

6

PECAM-1

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule

Diapedesis: leukocyte binds PECAM-1 and migrates between endothelial cells--> exits into interstitium

7

C5a, IL-8, LTB4, Kallikreain

Bacterial products that attract leukocyte (chemotactic signals)--> phagocytosis of bacteria

8

Granulomatous disease

Th1 cells secrete gamma-IFN--> macrophage activation

Macrophages secrete TNF-alpha= induces and maintains granuloma

9

Decreased ESR

Sickle cell (altered shape)
Polycythemia (too many RBCs)
CHF (unknown)

10

AL amyloidosis

Primary amyloidosis

IgLight chains
- Due to plasma cell disorder, multiple myeloma
--> multi organ system impact (renal, cardiac, hematologic, hepatic, neuropathy)

11

AA amyloidosis

Secondary to chronic disease: RA, IBD, spondyloarthropathy, chronic infections

- Fibrils= serum Amyloid A (AA)
- Multisystem

12

beta-2 microglobulin fibrils

Seen in dialysis-related amyloidosis
--> carpal tunnel syndrome, joint issues

13

ATTR amyloidosis

Heritable
- Neurologic/cardiac amyloidosis d/t transthyretic (TTR or prealbumin) gene mutation

14

Anaplasia

Abnormal cells lacking differentiation: ressemble primitive cells of same tissue
- Little or no resemblance to tissue of origin

Irreversible change (like neoplasia)

15

Desmoplasia

Fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm

Irreversible change (like neoplasia)

16

Tumor stage

TNM:
Tumor size (perforate out of capsule?)
Node involvement
Metastases (perforate vessels, lymph? important prognostic factor)

** Staging has more prognostic value than grade

17

Cachexia

Mediated by TNF-alpha (cachectin), IFN-gamma, IL-6
- Macrophages--> TNF-alpha, IL-6 (pyrogenic)

Weight loss, atrophy, fatique d/t chronic disease

18

Tuberous sclerosis

Facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation

Associated neoplasms:
- Giant cell astrocytoma
- Renal angiomylolipoma
- Cardiac rhabdomyoma

19

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Esophageal webs, dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia

Associated neoplasm: squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

20

abl

Oncogene encoding Tyrosine kinase
- Associated with CML (t(9;22)--> bcr-abl fusion protein)

21

c-myc

Transcription factor oncogene
- Associated with Burkitt's lymphoma= t(8;14)--> CD10, BCL-6

22

HER2/neu (c-erbB2)

Tyrosine kinase
- Associated with breast, ovarian, gastric carcinomas

23

ras

GTPase: GTP bound--> activated--> MAPKinase system--> nucleus
- Colon carcinoma

24

ret

Tyrosine kinase
- MEN 2A, 2B

25

c-kit

Cytokine receptor
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

26

p16

Tumor suppressor gene
- LOF seen in melanoma, along with BRAF

27

Rb

Chromosome 13: RB1
Inhibits E2F (transcription factor)
Blocks G1--> S phase
- Associated with Retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma
2 hit hypothesis: lose heterogeneity (after already having one defective gene)

28

p53

Transcription factor for p21
Blocks G1--> S phase

Seen in most human cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome

29

CEA

CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen
- Seen in colorectal, pancreatic cancer
- Also gastric, breast, medullary thyroid cancer

30

CA-125

Ovarian cancer marker

31

S-100

Neural-crest derived tumors:
- Melanoma, neural tumor, schwannomas

32

Alkaline Phosphatase

Elevated in Bone, liver mets
Seen in Paget's disease of bone

33

Bombesin

Marker of neuroblastoma, lung, gastric cancer

34

CA-19-9

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma marker

35

Vinyl chloride

Exposure related to angiosarcoma of liver

36

Arsenic

SCC of skin
Angiosarcoma of liver

37

Iron poisoning

Peroxidation of membrane lipids
- Acute= gastric bleeding
- Chronic= metabolic acidosis, scarring--> GI obstruction

38

N-myc

Transcription factor
- See in neuoroblastoma

39

WT1

Wilm's tumor
- Chromosome 11

40

NF1

Neurofibromatosis 1
- NF-1 gene codes for neurofibromin= suppressor of Ras
- RAS GTPase activation protein (RAS-GAP)
- Chrom 17

41

NF2

Neurofibromatosis 2
- Merlin (schwannomin protein)
- Chrom 22