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Flashcards in Random Facts Deck (34):
1

What is metabolic syndrome?

1) Elevated waist circumference: [(Men > 40 inches (102 cm); women > 35 inches (88 cm)]
2) Elevated triglycerides: Equal to or greater than 150 mg/dL (1.7 mmol/L)
3) Reduced HDL ("good") cholesterol: [(Men 130/85 mm Hg or use of medication for hypertension
5) Elevated fasting glucose: =/> 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) or use of medication for hyperglycemia

2

How is diabetes diagnosed?

By demonstrating any one of the following:

1) Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dl
2) plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test
3) symptoms of high blood sugar and casual plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl
4) HbA1c ≥ 6.5

3

What is a positive PPD test?

> 5 mm induration in patients with HIV
>10 mm induration in high-risk patients (recent immigrants from endemic areas, IVDU, children 15 mm induration in all patients (no risk factors)

4

What are the nodes in the hands of OA patients?

Heberden (DIP) nodes
Bouchard (PIP) nodes

5

What is Virchow's triad of DVT?

1) endothelial damage
2) immobilization
3) hypercoaguable state (OCPs, preganncy, lupus anticoagulant, inherited deficiencies)

6

QT is prolonged in (hypo/hyper)calcemia.

HYPOcalcemia = prolonged
HYPERcalcemia = QT shortening

7

Prolongation of patient survival in patients with congestive heart failure has been documented with:

diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, hydralazine plus nitrate, and aldosterone antagonists (added in NYHA class II

8

What is the sequelae of liver failure?

coagulopathy that can't be fixed with vit K, jaundice/hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, ascites, portal hypertension, hyperammonemia/encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, DIC

9

What is the guideline for HPV screening?

If just Pap, then EVERY YEAR for women >21 until 3 negative tests and over 30

If HPV serology AND Pap, then every 3 years

10

RADIAL NERVE

Motor function, sensory function, and clinical scenario in which it can be injured!

Motor: wrist extension (watch for wrist drop)

Sensory: back of forearm, back of hand (first 3 digits)

Clinical: humeral fracture

11

ULNAR NERVE:

Motor function, sensory function, and clinical scenario in which it can be injured!

Motor: finger abduction (watch for "claw hand")

Sensory: front and back of last 2 digits

Clinical: elbow dislocation

12

MEDIAN NERVE

Motor function, sensory function, and clinical scenario in which it can be injured!

motor: pronation, thumb opposition

sensory: palmar surface of hand (first 3 digits)

clinical: carpal tunnel syndrome, humeral fracture

13

AXILLARY NERVE

Motor function, sensory function, and clinical scenario in which it can be injured!

motor:
abduction, lateral rotation

sensory: lateral shoulder

clinical: upper humeral dislocation or fracture

14

PERONEAL NERVE

Motor function, sensory function, and clinical scenario in which it can be injured!

motor: dorsiflexion, eversion (watch for foot drop)

sensory: dorsal foot and lateral leg

clnical: knee dislocation

15

What is the management of carotid artery stenosis?

70-99%: endarterectomy

16

What are the adverse metabolic effects of thiazide diuretics?

calcium retention, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hyperlipidemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypovolemia
(PS are also sulfa drugs)

17

What are the adverse metabolic effects of loop diuretics?

hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypovolemia, ototoxicity, and calcium excretion
(w/ the exception of ethacrynic acid, are also sulfa drugs)

18

What are the adverse metabolic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors?

metabolic acidosis

19

What is an adverse metabolic effect of spironolactone?

potassium-sparing diuretics can cause hyperkalemia

20

What is the antidote for beta blocker poisoning?

glucagon

21

What is the antidote for quinidine or TCA overdose?

sodium bicarbonate (cardioprotective)

22

increased hemoglobin A2 and anemia

thalassemia

23

rash develops after administration of ampicillin or amoxicillin for sore throat:

EBV infection

24

port-wine stain and seizures:

Sturge-Weber syndrome

25

What is Beck's triad?

1) JVD distension
2) muffled heart sounds
3) hypotension

= cardiac tamponade

26

What is Chvostek sign?

tapping on the facial nerve elicits tetany (hypocalcemia)

27

What is Courvoisier sign?

painless, palpable gallbladder plus jaundice
(= pancreatic cancer)

28

What is Cullen sign?

bluish discoloration of periumbilical area (= pancreatitis with retroperitoneal hemorrhage)

29

What is Cushing reflex

hypertension, bradycardia, irregular respirations
(=high intracranial pressure)

30

What is Grey Turner sign?

Bluish discoloration of flank (=pancreatitis with retroperitoneal hemorrhage)

31

What is Kehr sign?

pain in the left shoudler (2/2 ruptured spleen)

32

What is Leriche syndrome?

claudication and atrophy of the buttocks with impotence (=aortoiliac occlusive disease)

33

What is Tinel sign?

tapping on the volar surface of hte wrist elicits paresthesias (=carpal tunnel syndrome)

34

What is Trousseau sign?

pumping up a blood pressure cuff causes carpopedal spasm (=tetany from hypocalcemia)