Random5 Flashcards Preview

Uworld Buzz step2 > Random5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Random5 Deck (95):
1

post traumatic shoulder pain w/ limited active abduction - think?

rotator cuff tear

2

rotator cuff tear, typical trauma --> ?

fall on an outstretched arm

3

signs of rotator cuff tear? (3)

- drop arm sign
- weakness w/ external rotation (passive range nL)
- pain worsened by raising arm overhead or w/ ext rotation

4

treatment of rotator cuff tear?

surgery w/ best results if performed w/in 6 wks of injury

5

MSK suggestions of a pancoast tumor? (4)

- shoulder pain
- radicular pain radiating to wrist
- atrophy of muscles
- compressive symptoms (ie edema)

6

infant nL @ birth but graudally dev apathy, weakness, hypOtonia, large tongue, sluggish movement, abdominal bloating, difficult breathing, jaundice, hypOthermia, umbilical hernia, refractory macrocytic anemia - think

congenital hypOthyroidism

7

causes of floppy baby syndrome (2)?

- Botulism
- Werdnig-Hoffman syndrome

8

Werdnig Hoffman syndrome is?

- AR disorder
- Degeneration of ant. horn cells and cranial motor nuclei
- symp prior to 6mo (ie generalized m. weakness, hypOtonia, hypermobility of joints, absent tendon relfexes, fasiculation of tongue, etc)

9

m. weakness, atrophy of distal m. of upper and lower extremities, inc tone, testicular atrophy, and baldness - think?

Myotonic congenital myopathy

10

nikolsky sign is?

top layer of skin slips away from lower layers when slightly rubbed

11

nikolsky sign is positive w? (3)

- Scalded skin syndrome (Staph aureus - exfoliative toxin)
- Toxic epidermal necrolysis
- Pemphigus vulgaris (absent in bullous pemph)

12

complication of kawasaki disease (2)?

- Coronary artery aneurysms
- MI

13

What should be done at time of dx and post kawasaki disease?

Echocardiography

14

reye syndrome is?

hepatic encephalopathy due to aspirin use in children during influenza or varicella infx

15

sickle cell pt w/ stroke, treatment?

- Exchange transfusion (to dec # of sickle RBCs)
- Continue hydroxyurea

*Note: this does not reverse stroke, prevents any further strokes

*note: fibrinolytic therapy not likely to help bc 2ndary to sludging of sickle cell not thrombus/emboli

16

twisting force w/ foot fixed --> popping sound, what injured?

medial meniscus

17

palpable locking, catching, clicking when joint is internally or externally rotated and is then flexed or extended -- think?

meniscal tear

18

forceful hyperextension of knee or noncontact torsional injury during deceleration --> ?

ACL tear

19

blow to the lateral knee or forceful leg abduction -->?

Medial collateral ligament tear

20

patellofemoral pain syndrome presents? (3)

- chronic ant. knee pain
- worsened by activity or prolonged sitting/flexion
- crepitus w/ motion of patella

21

gold standard confirmatory test for HIT?

Serotonin release assay

22

necrotic lesions at heparin injection sites --> think?

HIT (Ab mediated)

23

supracondylar fracture concern for entrapment of what? (2)

- Brachial artery
- Median nerve

24

anti-topoisomerase 1 antibody?

Scleroderma

25

Antimitochondrial Ab?

Primary biliary cirrhosis

26

Anti-smooth muscle Ab?

autoimmune hepatitis

27

salvage therapy is?

treatment for a disease when a standard treatment fails

28

treatment for a disease when a standard treatment fails is called?

salvage therapy

29

adjuvant therapy is?

treatment given in ADDITION to standard therapy
(ie radical prostatectomy + radiation at same time)

30

treatment given in addition to standard therapy is?

adjuvant therapy

31

consolidation therapy is?

therapy given after induction therapy to further reduce tumor burden (consolidate our gains)

32

induction therapy is?

an initial dose of a treatment to rapidly kill tumor cells and send pt into remission

33

initial dose of a treatment meant to kill tumor and cause remission?

induction therapy

34

therapy given after induction therapy to further reduce tumor burden?

consolidation therapy

35

maintenance therapy is?

given after induction and consolidation therapies to kill any residual tumor cells and keep pt in remission

36

neoadjuvent therapy is?

a treatment given BEFORE the standard therapy for a particular disease

37

a treatment given before the standard therapy for a particular disease is?

neoadjuvent therapy

38

initial treatment for DKA?

- nL saline
- IV regular insulin
- correct electrolyte abnl
- treat precipitating cause

39

DKA requirements for dx?

- blood gluc >250
- serum pH

40

most appropriate next step in management of progressive pain in pt w/ prostate CA and bony mets after androgen ablation (orchiectomy)?

radiation therapy

41

gastroparesis symp?

-anorexia
- n/v
- early satiety
- postprandial fullness

42

treatment of pts w/ diabetic gastroparesis?

- optimize DM control
- dietary modifictation (small frequent meals, inc fiber)
- meds to improve gastric emptying (ie metoclopramide)

43

prokinetic and antiemetic med to help w/ diabetic gastroparesis?

metoclopramide

44

what meds can help w/ diabetic gastroparesis?

- Metoclopramide (prokinetic, antiemetic)
- Erythromycin (prokinetic properties; used for acute exacerbations)
- Cisapride (prokinetic, but risk of cardiac arrhythmias and death)

45

acute inflammatory arthritis + chondrocalcinosis - think?

pseudogout (Ca pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal arthritis)

46

chondrocalcinosis is?

calcification of articular cartilage

*found w/ pseudogout

47

anti-dss DNA Ab specific for?

SLE

48

anti smith Ab specific for?

SLE

49

anti-histone Ab is sensitive marker for what?

drug-induced lupus
(less so for minocycline-induced)

50

anti-cyclic citrullinated Ab is specific for?

RA

51

paget disease of bone due to?

osteoclastic bone resorption --> focal enlargement, weakness, or fracture of bone

52

frontal bossing, headaches, hearing loss, bowing long bones, bone pain w/ inc alk phos and nL Ca and phosphate - think?

Paget's disease of bone

53

main treatment for paget's disease of bone?

bisphosphonates

54

what are pts w/ acromegaly most likely to die from?

cardiovascular complications

55

acute back pain w/ point tenderness after lifting suggests?

vertebral compression fracture

56

pain pattern w/ compression fracture?

pain w/ standing, walking, or lying on back

57

positive straight leg raise test indicates?

nerve root compression --> herniated disk, radiculopathy, etc

58

low back pain + neurological symptoms worse w/ spinal extension (ie walking, standing) but improved w/ leaning forward or lying down -- think?

lumbar spinal stenosis

59

treatment of alcohol withdrawal?

benzos
- IV lorazepam preferred in hospital setting & those w/ liver disease (intermediate duration)

60

megacolon + cardiac disease - think?

Chagas disease (trypanosoma cruzi)

61

severe hyperCalcemia (>14) treatment?

Immediate:
- nL saline + calcitonin
- Avoid loop diuretics (unless vol overloaded)

Long term
- bisphosphonates (takes a few days)

62

loss of fetal station - think?

uterine rupture

63

painless vag bleeding on membrane rupture + fetal sinusoidal heart tracing (brady) - think?

vasa previa

64

most common type of spinocerebellar ataxia?

Friedreich ataxia

65

ataxia & dysarthria + scoliosis & hammertoes + concentric hypertophic cardiomyopathy - think?

Friedrich ataxia
(neuro + skeletal + cardiac)

66

most common cause of death in pts w/ friedreich ataxia?

cardiomyopathy or respiratory complications

67

pronator drift sensitive and specific finding for?

Pyyramidal/corticospinal tract disease (UMN)

68

signs of drug induced hyperammonemia (ie valproate)?

-encephalopathy (confusion, lethargy, etc)
- Neuromuscular findings (bradykinesia, asterixis, etc)

69

major complication concern for parapharyngeal space infx? (2)

- erosion into carotid artery
- jugular thrombophlebitis

70

most feared complication of a retropharyngeal abscess?

spread of infx into mediastinum --> acute necrotizing mediastinitis

71

chest pain due to coronary vasospasm?

variant angina (Prinzmental)

72

greatest risk factor for variant (prinzmental) angina?

smoking

73

transient chest pain occur at night w/ transient ST elevations - think?

variant (prinzmental) angina

74

treatment of prinzmental (variant) angina?

- elimination of risk factors (ie smoking)
- Ca channel blockers
- Alternatively, nitrates

75

meds to avoid in variant (prinzmental) angina?

- aspirin
- nonselective Beta blockers (ie propranolol)

76

what is a calcitonin producing tumor?

medullary thyroid cancer

77

Treament for guillen-barre?

IVIG or Plasmapheresis

78

cyclosporine and pyridostigmine can treat?

Myasthenia gravis

79

riluzole used in treatment of?

ALS

80

what type of meds may help with the passage of a kidney stone?

Alpha 1 receptor blockers (ie tamsulosin)

81

anticholinergic --> urinary what?

urinary retention
- can use to treat overactive bladder (inc bladder capacity)

82

bethanechol is? can treat what nephro stuff?

cholinergic agent

treat urinary retention or atonic bladder

83

oxybutynin is

anticholinergic

84

maj subarchanoid hemorrhage complication in first 24 hrs if left untreated?

rebleeding (maj cause of death w/in 24hrs of presentation)

85

maj subarchanoid hemmorhage complication in 3-10days post?

Vasospasm (maj cause of morbidity and death)

86

Prophylaxis for subarachnoid hemorrhage pts to prevent vasospasm?

Nimodipine

87

Nimodipine

prophylaxis for subarachnoid hemmorrhage pts to prevent vasospams

88

when do you see todd's palsy?

post seizure
- weakness one side of body for up to 48 hrs post seizure

89

n/v, pneumobilia, hyperactive bowel sounds, and dilated loops of bowel -- think?

gallstone ileus --> mechanical SBO

90

firstline treatment for OCD ?

high dose SSRIs and/or exposure and response CBT

91

young obese F w/ headache w/ nL imaging and inc ICP (ie papilledema) -

Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial HTN)

92

treatment for pseudotumor cerebri

- weight reduction
-if weightloss doesn't work --> Acetazolamide

eye surgery if refractory to both

93

maj complication of pseudotumor cerebri?

blindness

94

spinal cord compression what initial treatment?

IV steroids

95

ventricular aneurysm ECG findings?

- Persistent ST seg elevation post recent MI (5dys-3mo)

- Deep Q waves in same leads