What are the developmental stages of adolescence?
Early = 11-14; middle = 14-17; late = 18-21
What are the gender differences of development in adolescents?
Girls grow taller earlier than boys
Girls start puberty earlier than boys
Girls are physically mature in general 2 years earlier
What are the pubertal changes in different sexes during adolescence?
What are the clinical implications of the different ages of maturation between the sexes?
Early maturing girls and late maturing boys are at higher risk of: Depression Substance abuse Disruptive behaviour/Delinquency Eating Disorder Bullying
What are the changes in the brain that occur during puberty?
- Grey matter volumes decrease from 6 years-adolescence
- Linear increase in white matter - 20 years
- Developmental curves peak at ~12years: frontal and parietal lobes ~16 years: temporal lobes
- NB: Brain develops from back to the front, with higher thinking developing at around 13 as prefrontal cortex is mainly involved.
- Synapses are selected , with the ones important for development kept and the ones that aren't necessary are removed = called pruning
What cellular processes occur in brain development during puberty?
Synaptogenesis followed by pruning (synapse elimination) Axonal myelination [speeds up nerve conduction] Fine tune prefrontal cortex and other cortical regions Cortical function becomes fine-tuned with development. Brain regions associated with more basic functions such as sensory and motor processes mature first, followed by association areas involved in top-down control of behaviour
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
Symbolic thinking = imagine a bottle is a plane and play with it like a plane
What is Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
Moral reasoning (basis for ethical behaviour), has 6 developmental stages, each > adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor.
Sequence is fixed
Many people never obtain highest level [some adults continue to think in immature terms]
When do you acquire postconventional moral reasoning in adolescence (Kohlberg's stages)?
What is self concept?
Intellectual development = more complex self-concept Pubertal &amp; social changes = self concept Adolescence struggle to understand self Different ways conceptualising self –concept Most common described dimensions of self-concept
What are the 8 dimensions of self-concept (Harter)?
Scholastic competence Job competence Athletic competence Physical appearance Social acceptance Close friendships Romantic appeal Conduct
What are the clinical implications of emotional development (self concept)?
When is identity formed and what are Erikson's 8 life-span stages?
Search for identity important at this stage
Coincides with physical growth
Need for important life decisions
Resolution may be through “crisis”
What is Marcia's view on identity formation?
- ID status develops over time;
- only moratorium is necessary for ID development;
- extent of crisis is debated/unnecessary.
- ID associated with highest:
- Moral reasoning
- Career maturity
- Social skills
- Lower anxiety
How is ethnic identity in cultural minorities carried out?
What are the clinical implications of ethnic identities?
Varied parental expectations (duties etc.) Gender differences May generate conflict
How do family relationships affect development?
Development of autonomy and continuation close relationships Social domains - adolescents and parents may have different views about who has final say depending on “Domain”: friendships, clothes, career etc. Mid-adolescence: most intense negotiations
What kind of conflicts occur with parents during social development?
Most adolescents report good relationships parents Get on well with mother 86% father 80% High confiding to mothers Disagreements around dress, music choice, leisure activities, time of coming home, tidying bedrooms.
How does family connectedness manifest and what are the benefits?
How do peers affect development in primary school 7-11y?
Friends shared activities Main goal: acceptance by same gender group Stable preference for same gender friends Loyalty built on earlier interactions
How do peers affect development from 11-18y?
- Variations in friendships (popularity <=> rejection)
- Rejected children less satisfying friendships
- Gender differences:
- Girls: close relationships, more confiding, more brittle
- Boys: less intimate, less disclosing, friendships more embedded in larger circle
What is the difference between parental and peer influence?
What are the opportunities and risks of online generation?
How does the school and classroom affect development?
A study showed that there are higher chances to achieve 5+ GCSE's A*-C, girls achieve better than boys, can be ethnic variations
What is anorexia nervosa (ICD10 criteria)?
ICD10 criteria = Body wt at least 15% below expected (<17.5 BMI) Avoidance of “fattening” foods (may also be self-induced vomiting, purgative abuse, alternating periods of starvation, drugs eg appetite suppressants, laxatives) Psychopathology-morbid dread of fatness, aims for wt lower than premorbid or healthy Endocrine disturbance (amenorrhea in women and men lose sexual interest) May also be other wt loss behaviours.
What is anorexia nervosa (DSM5 criteria)?
What is bulimia nervosa (ICD10)?
Persistent preoccupation with eating, and an irresistible craving for food, succumbs to episodes of eating large amounts of food in short periods of time binges Wt losing behaviours: Purging: by vomiting, taking a laxative, diuretic, or stimulant, &amp;/or excessive exercise Psychopathology- morbid dread of fatness, aims for wt lower than premorbid or healthy
What is bulimia nervosa (Dsm 5)?
What pubertal development occurs in boys?
What pubertal development occurs in girls?