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CHEM - 4.1.1 Basic concepts + Alkanes (4.1.2) > Reaction Mechanisms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reaction Mechanisms Deck (7)
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Homolytic fission

- When a covalent bond breaks by homolytic fission, each of the bonded atoms takes one of the shared pair of electrons from the bond.
- Each atom would have a single unpaired electron shows by a dot.



An atom or groups of atoms with unpaired electron is called a radical.


Heterolytic fission

- When a covalent bond breaks by heterolytic fission, one of the bonded atoms takes BOTH the electrons from the bond.
- The atom that takes both electrons becomes a negative ion.
- The atom that does not take the electrons becomes a positive ion.


Curly arrows

A curly arrow shows the movement f an electron pair, showing either heterolytic fission or formation of a covalent bond.
* Half curly arrows represent the movement of single, unpaired electron in mechanisms involving radicals (homolytic fission).


Addition reactions

2 reactants join together to form 1 product. Usually a double bond is turned to 2 single bonds.


Substitution reactions

An atom or group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms. Same number of products and reactants.


Elimination reactions

The removal of a small molecule from a larger one. 1 reactant molecule forms 2 products. Usually a single bond to double bond.