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OCR B Chemistry Alevel > Reaction Pathways > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reaction Pathways Deck (44)
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1

arene sulfonation

c.H2SO4 (reflux)

2

nitrating arene

c.HNO3, c.H2SO4 at <50C

3

saturating arene

H2, Ni catalyst at 300C and 30atm

4

arene alkylation

using haloalkane, AlCl3 catalyst (reflux)

5

arene acylation

acylchloride, AlCl3 catalyst (reflux)

6

arene chlorination

Cl2 (g), AlCl3 (makes Cl2 electrophilic enough to react with arene) catalyst at RT

7

arene bromination

Br2 (l), FeBr3 (makes Br2 electrophilic enough to react with arene) catalyst at RT

8

why is nitrating arenes done at low temperatures

protonated HNO3 very reactive - low temperatures to avoid multiple substitutions

9

why is a catalyst used to chlorinate/ brominate/ nitrating arenes

makes them electrophilic enough to react with benzene

10

what are the Friedel Crafts Reactions

alkylation and acylation

11

what type of reactions are brominating/ nitrating/ sulfonating arenes

(electrophilic) aromatic substitutions

12

alkene to dihaloalkane

Br2 (l)

13

alkene to alkane

H2 (g), Pt catalyst

14

alkene to alcohol

c. H2SO4, H2O (reflux)

15

alkene to haloalcohol

Br2 (aq)

16

alkene to haloalkane

HBr (aq), RT

17

alkane to haloalkane

Cl2, UV light

18

alcohol to alkene

Al2O3, 300C

19

haloalkane to amine

c. NH3 (aq), heat in sealed tube

20

haloalkane to alcohol

NaOH (reflux)

21

alcohol to haloalkane

NaBr, c.H2SO4 (reflux)

22

alcohol to ketone

acidified K2Cr2O7 (reflux)

23

alcohol to aldehyde

acidified K2Cr2O7 (distil)

24

alcohol to carboxylic acid

acidified K2Cr2O7 (reflux)

25

aldehyde/ ketone to alcohol

NaBH4, H2O

26

haloalkane to nitrile

CN-, ethanol (reflux)

27

nitrile to amine

H2, Ni catalyst

28

aldehyde/ ketone to hydroxynitrile

acidified NaCN (aq)

29

aldehyde to carboxylic acid

acidified K2Cr2O7 (reflux)

30

carboxylic acid to carboxylate

NaOH